Latest News On Face Masks In Spain?
- Víctormanuel Paz
Use of face masks In Spain, as of 20 April 2022 it is no longer mandatory to wear a mask indoors or outdoors with certain exceptions. You must wear a mask:
- When travelling by plane, train or bus, as well as in all other public transport.
- On ships or boats when the 1. 5-metre safety distance cannot be guaranteed, except inside cabins, provided these are shared with members of the same household or bubble.
- In healthcare centres, services and establishments, such as health centres, hospitals and pharmacies.
- Workers and visitors in communal areas of socio-sanitary centres.
Remember that children under the age of six are not obliged to wear masks under any circumstances. In hotels, restaurants, shops and cultural venues Restrictions and occupancy control have been lifted in hotels, restaurants, shops and commercial establishments, as well as in museums, monuments, cultural venues, exhibitions, shows and leisure activities.
- It is also no longer a requirement to wear a mask inside or in enclosed areas open to the public;
- However, you must still wear a mask in pharmacies, health centres and hospitals;
- In any event, to be able to continue enjoying an improved experience and for your own comfort, we recommend that you still book ahead wherever possible to avoid overcrowding;
Tips for enjoying yourself in complete safety Although a mask is no longer mandatory in many establishments and enclosed spaces open to the public, it is still recommended to wear one whenever social distancing cannot be maintained or for vulnerable people, such as the over 60s or expectant mothers.
Remember to follow the general recommended health and safety measures, such as keeping a safe distance from others whenever possible or using hydroalcoholic gel. What happens if you fall ill during your stay in Spain? In the event of a confirmed case of COVID-19, it is recommended to exercise caution and minimise social interactions as much as possible by constantly wearing a mask and maintaining adequate hand hygiene for 10 days after the onset of symptoms or the diagnosis if you are asymptomatic.
It is advisable to particularly avoid contact with vulnerable people and not to attend large events. It is no longer mandatory for close contacts of confirmed cases to self-isolate. Bear in mind that in all cases, Spanish emergency healthcare services are guaranteed and provided at hospitals and healthcare centres.
Which surface disinfectants are recommended to reduce spread of COVID-19?
Spain partially ends obligatory use of mask indoors • FRANCE 24 English
Disinfection practices are important to reduce the potential for COVID-19 virus contamination in non-healthcare settings, such as in the home, office, schools, gyms, publicly accessible buildings, faith-based community centres, markets, transportation and business settings or restaurants.
- High-touch surfaces in these non-health care settings should be identified for priority disinfection such as door and window handles, kitchen and food preparation areas, counter tops, bathroom surfaces, toilets and taps, touchscreen personal devices, personal computer keyboards, and work surfaces;
In non-health care settings, sodium hypochlorite (bleach / chlorine) may be used at a recommended concentration of 0. 1% or 1,000ppm (1 part of 5% strength household bleach to 49 parts of water). Alcohol at 70-90% can also be used for surface disinfection.
Surfaces must be cleaned with water and soap or a detergent first to remove dirt, followed by disinfection. Cleaning should always start from the least soiled (cleanest) area to the most soiled (dirtiest) area in order to not spread the dirty to areas that are less soiled.
All disinfectant solutions should be stored in opaque containers, in a well-ventilated, covered area that is not exposed to direct sunlight and ideally should be freshly prepared every day. In indoor spaces, routine application of disinfectants to surfaces via spraying is not recommended for COVID-19. It is important to reduce your risk when using disinfectants:
- The disinfectant and its concentration should be carefully selected to avoid damaging surfaces and to avoid or minimize toxic effects on household members (or users of public spaces).
- Avoid combining disinfectants, such as bleach and ammonia, since mixtures can cause respiratory irritation and release potentially fatal gases.
- Keep children, pets and other people away during the application of the product until it is dry and there is no odour.
- Open windows and use fans to ventilate. Step away from odours if they become too strong. Disinfectant solutions should always be prepared in well-ventilated areas.
- Wash your hands after using any disinfectant, including surface wipes.
- Keep lids tightly closed when not in use. Spills and accidents are more likely to happen when containers are open.
- Do not allow children to use disinfectant wipes. Keep cleaning fluids and disinfectants out of the reach of children and pets.
- Throw away disposable items like gloves and masks if they are used during cleaning. Do not clean and re-use.
- Do not use disinfectant wipes to clean hands or as baby wipes.
- The minimum recommended personal protective equipment when disinfecting in non-health care settings is rubber gloves, waterproof aprons and closed shoes. Eye protection and medical masks may also be needed to protect against chemicals in use or if there is a risk of splashing.
Note: Where cleaning and disinfection are not possible on a regular basis due to resource limitations, frequent hand washing and avoiding touching the face should be the primary prevention approaches to reduce any potential transmission associated with surface contamination. In outdoor spaces, large-scale spraying or fumigation in areas such as streets or open market places for the COVID-19 virus or other pathogens is not recommended. Streets and sidewalks are not considered as routes of infection for COVID-19. Spraying disinfectants, even outdoors, can be noxious for people’s health and cause eye, respiratory or skin irritation or damage.
If disinfectants are to be applied, these should be via a cloth or wipe which is soaked in the disinfectant. This practice will be ineffective since the presence of dirt or rubbish for example, inactivates the disinfectant, and manual cleaning to physically remove all matter is not feasible.
This is even less effective on porous surfaces such as sidewalks and unpaved walkways. Even in the absence of dirt or rubbish, it is unlikely that chemical spraying would adequately cover surfaces allowing the required contact time to inactivate pathogens.
No. Spraying of individuals with disinfectants (such as in a tunnel, cabinet, or chamber) is not recommended under any circumstances. This practice could be physically and psychologically harmful and would not reduce an infected person’s ability to spread the virus through droplets or contact.
Even if someone who is infected with COVID-19 goes through a disinfection tunnel or chamber, as soon as they start speaking, coughing or sneezing they can still spread the virus. The toxic effect of spraying with chemicals such as chlorine on individuals can lead to eye and skin irritation, bronchospasm due to inhalation, and potentially gastrointestinal effects such as nausea and vomiting.
In addition to health safety concerns, the use of chlorine in large-scale spraying practices may prevent this resource from being used for important interventions such as drinking water treatment and environmental disinfection of health care facilities.
While outside, people should always follow physical distancing measures, staying at least one metre from another person; perform hand hygiene by washing hands frequently with soap and water or using alcohol-based hand rub; follow good respiratory hygiene by covering your mouth and nose with your bent elbow or tissue when coughing or sneezing; avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth; and avoid crowded places.
- The use of gloves by the public in public spaces is not a recommended or proven prevention measure;
- Wearing gloves in public spaces does not replace the need for hand hygiene, nor does it offer any additional measure of protection against the COVID-19 virus than hand hygiene;
Gloves do not provide complete protection against hand contamination, as pathogens may gain access to the hands via small defects in gloves or by contamination of the hands during glove removal. People can also transfer pathogens from one surface to another by touching with gloved hands, or even transfer pathogens to the mouth, nose, or eyes if they touch their face with gloved hands.
There is no evidence to date of viruses that cause respiratory illnesses being transmitted via food or food packaging. Coronaviruses cannot multiply in food; they need an animal or human host to multiply.
The COVID-19 virus is generally thought to be spread from person to person through respiratory droplets. Currently, there is no evidence to support transmission of the COVID-19 virus associated with food. Before preparing or eating food it is important to always wash your hands with soap and water for at least 40-60 seconds.
Regular food safety and handling guidance should be followed. See: https://www. who. int/activities/promoting-safe-food-handling. For food service businesses, please see the below guidance on COVID-19 and Food Safety: https://www.
who. int/teams/risk-communication/food-and-agriculture-sectors .
What is the meaning of airborne transmission?
Airborne transmission – Airborne transmission is defined as the spread of an infectious agent caused by the dissemination of droplet nuclei (aerosols) that remain infectious when suspended in air over long distances and time. ( 11 ) Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 can occur during medical procedures that generate aerosols (“aerosol generating procedures”).
( 12 ) WHO, together with the scientific community, has been actively discussing and evaluating whether SARS-CoV-2 may also spread through aerosols in the absence of aerosol generating procedures, particularly in indoor settings with poor ventilation.
The physics of exhaled air and flow physics have generated hypotheses about possible mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through aerosols. ( 13-16 ) These theories suggest that 1) a number of respiratory droplets generate microscopic aerosols (<5 µm) by evaporating, and 2) normal breathing and talking results in exhaled aerosols. Thus, a susceptible person could inhale aerosols, and could become infected if the aerosols contain the virus in sufficient quantity to cause infection within the recipient. However, the proportion of exhaled droplet nuclei or of respiratory droplets that evaporate to generate aerosols, and the infectious dose of viable SARS-CoV-2 required to cause infection in another person are not known, but it has been studied for other respiratory viruses.
( 17 ) One experimental study quantified the amount of droplets of various sizes that remain airborne during normal speech. However, the authors acknowledge that this relies on the independent action hypothesis, which has not been validated for humans and SARS-CoV-2.
( 18 ) Another recent experimental model found that healthy individuals can produce aerosols through coughing and talking ( 19 ) , and another model suggested high variability between individuals in terms of particle emission rates during speech, with increased rates correlated with increased amplitude of vocalization.
( 20 ) To date, transmission of SARS-CoV-2 by this type of aerosol route has not been demonstrated; much more research is needed given the possible implications of such route of transmission. Experimental studies have generated aerosols of infectious samples using high-powered jet nebulizers under controlled laboratory conditions.
These studies found SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA in air samples within aerosols for up to 3 hours in one study ( 21 ) and 16 hours in another, which also found viable replication-competent virus. ( 22 ) These findings were from experimentally induced aerosols that do not reflect normal human cough conditions.
- Some studies conducted in health care settings where symptomatic COVID-19 patients were cared for, but where aerosol generating procedures were not performed, reported the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples ( 23-28 ) , while other similar investigations in both health care and non-health care settings found no presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA; no studies have found viable virus in air samples;
( 29-36 ) Within samples where SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found, the quantity of RNA detected was in extremely low numbers in large volumes of air and one study that found SARS-CoV-2 RNA in air samples reported inability to identify viable virus. ( 25 ) The detection of RNA using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based assays is not necessarily indicative of replication- and infection-competent (viable) virus that could be transmissible and capable of causing infection.
( 37 ) Recent clinical reports of health workers exposed to COVID-19 index cases, not in the presence of aerosol-generating procedures, found no nosocomial transmission when contact and droplet precautions were appropriately used, including the wearing of medical masks as a component of the personal protective equipment (PPE).
( 38 , 39 ) These observations suggest that aerosol transmission did not occur in this context. Further studies are needed to determine whether it is possible to detect viable SARS-CoV-2 in air samples from settings where no procedures that generate aerosols are performed and what role aerosols might play in transmission.
Outside of medical facilities, some outbreak reports related to indoor crowded spaces ( 40 ) have suggested the possibility of aerosol transmission, combined with droplet transmission, for example, during choir practice ( 7 ) , in restaurants ( 41 ) or in fitness classes.
( 42 ) In these events, short-range aerosol transmission, particularly in specific indoor locations, such as crowded and inadequately ventilated spaces over a prolonged period of time with infected persons cannot be ruled out. However, the detailed investigations of these clusters suggest that droplet and fomite transmission could also explain human-to-human transmission within these clusters.
Further, the close contact environments of these clusters may have facilitated transmission from a small number of cases to many other people (e. , superspreading event), especially if hand hygiene was not performed and masks were not used when physical distancing was not maintained.
( 43 ).