Non Renewable Energy In Spain?
- Víctormanuel Paz
Andorra Thermal Power Station (Teruel). Primary energy consumption in Spain in 2015 was mainly composed of fossil fuels. The largest sources are petroleum (42. 3%), natural gas (19. 8%) and coal (11. 6%). The remaining 26. 3% is accounted for nuclear energy (12%) and different renewable energy sources (14.
3%). Domestic production of primary energy includes nuclear (44,8%), solar, wind and geothermal (22,4%), biomass and waste (21,1%), hydropower (7,2%) and fossil (4,5%). According to The World Factbook , in 2011 Spain produced 276.
8 TWh of electricity. In the same year, Spain consumed only 249. 7 TWh of electricity. In the early 2000s, huge investment has been made into Spain’s renewable energy industry. Spain aims to be carbon-free before 2050. According to Red Electrica de España (REE), the Spanish peninsula got 69 percent of its electricity generation in March 2015 from technologies that produce zero carbon emissions (renewable energy and nuclear power ).
Nuclear as a whole provided 23. 8 percent of the country’s electricity in March, while 47 percent came solely from renewable sources. Most of the renewable electricity being generated in Spain comes from wind, which alone provided 22.
5 percent of the country’s electricity in April 2015. Wind often competes with nuclear for the title of Spain’s top electricity generation source overall — in fact, though nuclear pulled through in March 2015 as the top source of electricity, wind has overall provided more electricity to Spain in the entirety of 2015. Development of carbon dioxide emissions The energy sector accounts for approximately 2. 5% of Spain GDP. One of the factors which has limited the economic development of Spain throughout history has been the relative scarcity of energy resources. While Spain does have its own hydrocarbon (liquid and gas) resources, their quantity is far too low to meet demand.
From January to March 2015, according to REE, wind provided 23. 7 percent of electricity generation while nuclear made up 22. 7 percent. In addition, there has been a low quality in the available coal (even though the Central Asturian Carboniferous Basin is quite large).
The energy dependency rate stood at 81,4% in 2005 and 73,3% in 2015. This deficit rate is higher than in the EU(28): 2005 (52,1%) and 2015(54%).
Is Spain using renewable energy?
Renewable sources accounted for 43 per cent of the electricity produced in Spain in 2020. This is the highest share of renewable electricity since measurements began, but short of the Spanish government’s target of a renewable share of 74 per cent by 2030.
What types of renewable energy does Spain use?
Spain is a world leader in installed power. With 1,265 wind farms (21,419 turbines) installed in 1037 municipalities, wind power is the first ranking renewable in Spain’s energy mix, followed by hydroelectric in 2021. The Spanish wind sector is a success story.
What percentage of Spain energy is renewable?
IEA (2021), Spain 2021 , IEA, Paris https://www. iea. org/reports/spain-2021 This is an extract, full report available as PDF download Since the last International Energy Agency (IEA) in-depth review in 2015, Spain has solved a long-standing issue of tariff deficits in its electricity and gas sectors and closed all of its coal mines, which has allowed it to prioritise the issue of climate change on its national agenda and align its goals with European Union (EU) objectives and ambitions.
- In doing so, Spain has placed the energy transition at the forefront of its energy and climate change policies;
- The current Spanish framework for energy and climate is based on the 2050 objectives of national climate neutrality, 100% renewable energy in the electricity mix and 97% renewable energy in the total energy mix;
As such, it is centred on the massive development of renewable energy, particularly solar and wind; energy efficiency; electrification; and renewable hydrogen. This is seen as an opportunity to stimulate the economy; create jobs; modernise industry; enhance competitiveness; support vulnerable groups; improve energy security; and support research, development and innovation.
- Notwithstanding its considerable progress to date on decarbonising and increasing the share of renewables in the electricity sector, Spain’s total energy mix is still heavily dominated by fossil fuels;
Notably, the transport, industry and buildings sectors all have considerably more work ahead of them to meet the country’s targets for renewables penetration and decarbonisation. Moreover, under Spain’s decentralised system of government, regional administrations have considerable authority over energy policy development and implementation, making effective co-ordination between the centre and the regions even more critical to successful enactment of energy strategies in Spain.
When all of Spain’s plans and strategies are implemented, a completely different energy sector will emerge, where fossil fuels are no longer dominant and end-user sectors are mostly electrified. Such a transformed energy landscape will come with new challenges and will provide new opportunities.
The challenges include energy security. The current system is backed up by massive stocks of oil, gas and coal that can be dispatched in a flexible way; the new system, with a large share of variable renewable generation, will require other forms of longer term backup, on top of short-term flexibility.
New vulnerabilities will also arise, as electrification goes hand-in-hand with smartening of the system and digitalisation. The opportunities are with energy system integration. The new energy system can be much more efficient than the current one, as end-use sectors can be coupled with higher electrification, the use of residual heat, waste to energy, but also using electricity to produce renewable gases like hydrogen, among others.
It will be important for Spain to adapt the policy and regulatory framework, where needed, to gradually shape such a new integrated energy system. The current post-COVID-19 recovery context presents Spain with an important opportunity to frontload its planned energy transition investments to the upcoming three years.
- Spain is currently working on its green recovery plan, as it will be one of the key beneficiaries of EU recovery funds;
- The main areas defined in the initial draft of Spain’s Recovery and Resilience Plan for the energy transition are efficiency, sustainable mobility, renewable energies, electricity infrastructure, storage and flexibility, and green hydrogen;
Spain should capitalise on this opportunity to jumpstart actions outlined in its National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP). As a member of the European Union (EU), Spain is bound by EU targets for energy and climate change as part of the Energy Union. Toward this end, the central strategy document guiding Spain’s energy and climate policies over the coming decade is its NECP for the period 2021-30.
- It outlines a number of policy actions in various sectors that will support the country’s climate targets, including in the areas of energy efficiency, renewables and transport;
- Its 2030 objectives include: a 23% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levles; a 42% share of renewables in energy end use; a 39;
5% improvement in energy efficiency; and a 74% share of renewables in electricity generation. Policies include increasing renewable power installations and boosting the use of renewable gases in the power sector, modal shifts and electrification in the transport sector, refurbishments and increasing the use of renewable heating in the residential and commercial sectors, promoting energy efficiency and fuel switching in the industry sector, and energy efficiency improvements in the agricultural sector.
The government anticipates that investments of EUR 241 billion will be needed to enact the measures outlined in the NECP, out of which 80% is estimated to come from the private sector. Domestically, the Climate Change and Energy Transition Bill places the fight against climate change and the need for an energy transition at the centre of the economy and society.
Its main targets are similar to those in the NECP, also placing renewable energy and energy efficiency at the centre of the energy transition. Notably, Spain has emphasised the concept of a just transition to ensure that communities in traditional energy sectors, notably coal mining, are not left behind.
To this end, Spain’s Just Transition Strategy includes measures to promote employment opportunities in the energy transition, supported by a framework of vocational training, active labour policies, support measures to the most vulnerable and economic stimulus plans for those regions most affected by the energy transition.
These are executed through “just transition agreements” between the government, unions and businesses, which can serve as an example to other countries facing similar issues. Spain’s overall energy strategy employs an “efficiency first” principle. In all sectors, Spain’s energy transition objectives hinge heavily on reducing consumption.
Already, Spain has begun to decouple economic growth from energy consumption; energy intensity, the ratio of total consumption to gross domestic product, fell by 18% between 2008 and 2019. Still, more reductions will be needed across all sectors.
The Bill on Climate Change and the Energy Transition as well as the NECP outline a number of measures to improve efficiency and reduce consumption in all economic sectors, including transport, buildings and industry. The policy plans are extensive and can achieve strong results, but will need to be accompanied by a predictable, long-term regulatory framework; sufficient incentives to mobilise private investments; and adequate public financing to underpin all the programmes over the coming decade.
- In addition, under Spain’s decentralised system of government, the implementation of a number of efficiency measures for transport, buildings and industry will fall on regional and local governments, making co-ordination between the central government and regional/local administrations as well as skills capacity at all levels of government essential to success;
Spain is progressing toward its 2030 targets, notably in the electricity sector. After a slump in investments between 2013 and 2018 due to a lack of financial means to promote renewables, investments took off again in 2019. The share of renewables (including non‑renewable waste) in the national electricity mix grew from 24% in 2009 to 38% in 2019.
- As such, Spain is well on track to meet its 2020 target to source 42% of its electricity from renewables;
- Though Spain’s progress on ramping up renewables in its electricity mix is commendable, the future trajectory of its power mix warrants careful consideration to ensure a smooth transition;
To start, Spain plans to phase out both coal and nuclear power generation. The coal phase-out appears well on track, with coal only providing around 5% of electricity generation in 2019 and even less in 2020. Nuclear power, which accounted for 22% of power generation in 2019 (and an important source of low-carbon generation), will begin shutting down from 2027.
Four of Spain’s seven nuclear reactors are scheduled to close by the end of 2030, representing around 4 gigawatts of capacity. Natural gas combined‑cycle plants provide around one-third of power generation, and will be crucial to balancing out a power system that is heavily dependent on variable renewables once coal and nuclear have left the market.
As such, the government will need to pay special attention to prevent natural gas generation capacity from simultaneously exiting the system. In this regard, the government should thoroughly assess the cost implications for consumers of the expedited phase-out of both coal and nuclear generation.
- Spain’s targets also foresee a sizeable buildout of new renewables capacity to reach 74% of electricity generation by 2030, notably wind and solar;
- As such, a stable, long-term remuneration framework for supporting the growth of renewables, including for storage, will be essential;
Spain’s updated auction mechanisms are a step in the right direction, and investor sentiment and availability of financing appears on track. Additional help could come in the form of expedited permitting and timely issuance of auction schedules and terms to improve investment clarity.
Moreover, the trajectory will require a concerted focus on system integration of variable renewables in the coming years. The government’s strategy is centred on interconnections, storage, demand-side management and digitalisation.
Public consultations and regulatory proceedings are underway in all of these areas, though timely issuance of a regulatory framework will be crucial to mobilising investments, including in next-generation technologies such as biogas and hydrogen. Co-operation with neighbouring governments on interconnection capacity will also be a key element of utilising Spain’s full production capacity on renewables, notably with France to expand connection of the Iberian peninsula with the rest of continental Europe.
Beyond the electricity sector, the government plans to expand self-consumption of renewables and distributed generation, as well as promote the use of renewables in the industry and heating sectors. It also has plans to support the production of advanced biofuels and renewable gases, as well as hydrogen.
Overall, Spain plans to move toward a full energy system transformation, the foundations of which will be laid in the coming decade. The Long-Term Strategy projects that the electrification of the economy will be over 50% by 2050. In order to integrate more renewables into other sectors of the economy, the government has a four-pronged strategy: 1) energy efficiency first; 2) renewables-based electrification; 3) storage; and 4) indirect electrification through renewable gases, mainly hydrogen.
The promotion of renewable gases is a critical measure outlined in Spain’s NECP, with uses planned in mobility, industry, seasonal storage and synthetic fuels. To this end, the government has several initiatives in place or underway to jumpstart plans and investments in the 2030 time frame, including a Hydrogen Roadmap, a Biogas Roadmap, an Offshore Wind Roadmap, a self-consumption strategy public consultation and a smart meter evolution public consultation.
As Spain looks to a future of increased electrification of end-use sectors and sector coupling – an essential element to achieve an energy transition – the competitiveness of electricity against fossil fuels will be a critical element to achieving the desired results.
- As such, Spain should consider changes to its taxation system, notably to incorporate the cost of carbon into end-use prices, to reduce barriers to increased uptake of clean electricity in more end uses;
From an energy security perspective, although Spain continues to be heavily dependent (73% dependency) on foreign sources for its energy, its sources for oil and gas are relatively well diversified and the government has robust emergency response frameworks in place in the case of a disruption.
Though the new policies and increased electrification will reduce Spain’s import dependency, the rapid closure of coal and nuclear facilities over the coming decade bears watching, as it could increase the country’s call on natural gas, especially if new renewables capacity cannot be built as quickly as planned.
Interconnectivity with other European countries is also a critical element for Spain to improve security of supply. While electricity projects with Portugal are progressing, existing interconnection with France is often congested and new projects have been delayed, causing Spain to fall short of its EU interconnectivity targets of 10% by 2020 and putting at risk its 15% target by 2030. The government of Spain should:
- Ensure that the National Recovery and Resilience Plan supports achieving the NECP’s targets.
- Improve co-ordination with regional authorities and municipalities to implement the NECP’s measures, especially on energy efficiency, more effectively.
- Reinforce efforts to create more flexibility in the electricity market and to ensure proper price signals for investments in generation, through increased interconnectivity, continued integration of regional markets, and the development of demand-side response and storage.
- Review taxation to avoid excess charges and distortionary impacts on electricity relative to oil and gas consumption to promote electrification. Consider additional carbon-based taxation as well as other mechanisms to progressively redistribute electricity charges among all actors in the energy system.
How does Spain get its energy?
Based on data from Red Eléctrica de España, Spain’s electric grid operator, 18% of Spain’s gross electricity generation came from wind energy, 14% from hydropower, 5% from solar, and 2% from other renewable sources in 2016.
Is Spain self sufficient in energy?
ELECTRICITY – Spanish power stations have the capacity to generate a total of 97,447 megawatts, including intermittent supplies of wind, solar and hydropower. In practice they produce an average of some 30,000 MW. Record power demand is 44,876 MW, or less than half the system’s theoretical capacity.
Most of Spain’s electricity in the past year (20. 6 percent) has been generated by nuclear power, followed by gas-fired plants (19. 6 percent) and wind power (15. 7 percent). Spain is self-sufficient in electricity and in 2010 exported a surplus equivalent to 3.
3 percent of final demand to Portugal, Morocco and France. Spain’s leading power utilities are Iberdrola, Enel unit Endesa and Gas Natural.
Why does Spain use solar energy?
|This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. ( April 2017 )|
Spain is one of the first countries to deploy large-scale solar photovoltaics , and is the world leader in concentrated solar power (CSP) production. In 2018, the cumulative total solar power installed was 7,011 MW, of which 4,707 MW were solar PV installations and 2,300 MW were concentrated solar power. In 2016, nearly 8 TWh of electrical power was produced from photovoltaics, and 5 TWh from CSP plants.
- Throughout 2016, photovoltaics accounted for 3% of total electricity generation, and solar-thermal an additional 1;
- Spain is one of the European countries with the most hours of sunshine;
- The country initially had a leading role in the development of solar power;
Generous prices for grid connected solar power were offered to encourage the industry. The boom in solar power installations were faster than anticipated and prices for grid connected solar power were not cut to reflect this, leading to a fast but unsustainable boom in installations.
- Spain would find itself second only to Germany in the world for solar power installed capacity;
- In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis , the Spanish government drastically cut its subsidies for solar power and capped future increases in capacity at 500 MW per year, with effects upon the industry worldwide;
Between 2012 and 2016, new installations stagnated in Spain while growth accelerated in other leading countries leaving Spain to lose much of its world leading status to countries such as Germany, China and Japan. The controversial “sun tax” and intimidating regulation surrounding solar self consumption introduced in 2015 were only begun to be repealed in late 2018 by the new government.
As a legacy from Spain’s earlier development of solar power, the country remains a world leader in concentrated solar power, accounting for almost a third of solar power installed capacity in the country, a much higher ratio than that for other countries as of 2017.
Many large concentrated solar power stations remain active in Spain and may have provided some of the impetus for large CSP developments in neighbouring Morocco. In 2017 Spain held large auctions for renewable energy capacity to be constructed by 2020: PV and wind projects each won 4 GW.
2020 is likely to see the industry beginning a dramatic rebirth following Spain’s National Energy and Climate Program (Plan Nacional Integrado de Energía y Clima – PNIEC). Up to 5 GW of new CSP installed capacity may be added.
What electricity is used in Spain?
Spain travel adaptors: which type do I need? – You will need to consider what to pack, to ensure you can use your personal electrical appliances safely whilst abroad. This normally includes the use of a travel adaptor , which is a device that simply allows you to plug any UK electrical appliance into a foreign electrical socket.
- It is important to note that it does not convert the voltage or frequency;
- For Spain there are two associated plug types, types C and F;
- Plug type C is the plug which has two round pins and plug type F is the plug which has two round pins with two earth clips on the side;
Spain operates on a 230V supply voltage and 50Hz.
Does Spain have nuclear power plants?
This report provides information on the status and development of nuclear power programmes in Spain, including factors related to the effective planning, decision making and implementation of the nuclear power programme that together lead to safe and economical operation of nuclear power plants.
The CNPP summarizes organizational and industrial aspects of nuclear power programmes and provides information about the relevant legislative, regulatory and international framework in Spain. The Spanish government plans to approve a Comprehensive Energy and Climate Plan that will realign the energy mix in order to comply with European commitments regarding climate change.
The Spanish plan will set the contribution of each source of energy to the energy mix, including nuclear power; the aim is to guarantee the competitiveness of the economy, economic growth, job creation and environmental sustainability. At present, Spain has seven nuclear reactors in operation in five sites, whereas three power reactors are currently shut down.
The energy system in Spain is regulated by the Ministry for the Ecological Transition (1) (MITECO) and by the National Commission on Markets and Competition (2) (CNMC). MITECO holds regulatory powers, whereas CNMC is in charge of supervision, control and information gathering in order to promote the proper functioning of the system.
The main goals of the Spanish energy policy are to guarantee supply, to ensure a larger contribution of energy in increasing the competitiveness of the Spanish economy, to reduce energy consumption and to comply with environmental objectives. The key priority for all stakeholders is to obtain a sustainable energy system for the future.
In order to achieve this goal, different regulatory measures have been taken in recent years. The energy policy in Spain has tended to progressively liberalize the markets with the main target of decreasing energy prices, ensuring the energy supply and quality, improving energy efficiency, reducing consumption and protecting the environment.
This liberalization of the system began with Law No. 54 of 27 November 1997 on the electricity sector , and with Law No. 34 of 7 October 1998 on the hydrocarbon sector . Law No. 54 of 1997 introduced third party access to the network as well as an organized energy trading system and reduced Government intervention in system management.
There were two kinds of activities related to the power supply: 1) activities carried out as a natural monopoly (transmission and distribution) that remained regulated, and 2) activities carried out under free competition (power generation and commercialization) under fully liberalized conditions.
In 2013, a new Law on the Electric Sector (Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013 ) replaced the previous law, after a deep reform of the system aimed to ensure the economic and financial sustainability of the system. Owing to increasing concern about climate change and the importance of sustainability, energy policy has focused on fostering the integration of renewable energy and on boosting energy efficiency.
- Hence, energy policy is now framed in two plans: the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 20172020 , and the Renewable Energy Plan 20112020 ;
- Spain is relatively dependent on foreign energy resources;
In 2016 (last data available ), about 27% of the primary energy consumed was produced from domestic resources, mainly renewable and nuclear energy. Therefore, renewable energy and nuclear energy have become of key importance in the challenge of reducing Spains dependence on foreign resources, in order to foster the guarantee of supply, which is one of the main goals of its energy policy. ESTIMATED AVAILABLE ENERGY SOURCES
|Total amount in specific units*||530||19||2. 5||33 000||65. 6||n.|
*Solid, liquid: million tonnes; gas: billion m 3 ; uranium: metric tonnes; hydro, renewable: TWh/year. : data not applicable. Sources: Survey of Energy Resources, 2016 ; Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand ; Plan de Energas Renovables 20112020 . TABLE 2. ENERGY STATISTICS
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016*||Compound annual growth rate** (%) 2000 to 2016*|
|Energy consumption [PJ]***|
|– Total||3 030||3 710||5 222||5 570||5 159||5 170||0. 06|
|– Solids****||560||850||906||354||573||437||4. 45|
|– Liquids||2 070||1 880||2 707||2 618||2 226||2 287||1. 05|
|– Gases||80||230||637||1 310||1 027||1 048||3. 16|
|– Nuclear||320||750||679||676||625||639||0. 38|
|– Hydro||106||138||100||131||1. 33|
|– Other renewables||187||473||608||627||7. 87|
|Energy production [PJ]|
|– Total||850||1 400||1 336||1 443||1 394||1 378||0. 19|
|– Solids****||450||540||349||144||50||29||14. 42|
|– Liquids||70||50||9||5||10||6||3. 27|
|– Gases||330||60||6||2||2||1||8. 97|
|– Nuclear||750||679||676||625||639||0. 37|
|– Hydro||106||142||100||131||1. 32|
|– Other renewables||187||473||607||572||7. 25|
|Net import (Import – Export) [PJ]|
|– Total||2 180||2 310||3 886||4 128||3 765||3 792||0. 15|
*Latest available data. ** Compound annual growth rate: CAGR = (EV/BV) 1/n 1. ***Energy consumption = Primary energy consumption + Net import (Import-Export) of secondary energy. ****Solid fuels include coal, lignite. Source: Libro de la Energa en Espaa 20002016 . Electricity supply is considered a service of general economic interest, since it is essential for robust economic activity.
TABLE 1. The electricity system in Spain comprises two kinds of activities: those carried out under a natural monopoly regime (electricity transmission and distribution), and those carried out on the basis of a market economy (generation and commercialization).
Hence, the Government approves the specific regulations, whereas the economic agents establish the prices. In 2012, the Spanish Government carried out a deep reform of the electricity system in order to set up the basis of a real sustainable system for the future.
The main goals of the reform are to assure the economic and financial sustainability of the system, to guarantee an electricity supply of appropriate quality and at the lowest economic and environmental cost, and to achieve an effective level of competition.
The reform culminated with Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013 on the electricity sector , which provides the actual framework of the system. For the electricity system, energy planning is key to guaranteeing the power supply. Its goal is to meet the demand of electricity in every circumstance at the lowest price feasible, all while respecting considerations of the environment.
- In Spain, energy planning is mainly non-binding, since most of the electricity supply activities are carried out under free competition;
- Planning activities take into account future demand, the resources that are necessary to meet that demand, and environmental criteria;
However, binding decisions are also made, since energy planning includes infrastructures that are necessary for the electricity system, such as transmission facilities essential to address future supply needs. Hence, binding planning decisions address the large infrastructures that provide the basis of the complete national energy system.
Current energy planning is set out in the document Energy Plan for the Development of the Electric Power Transmission Network 20152020 , which was approved by the Council of Ministers in 2015. The plan includes the infrastructures needed to guarantee the electricity supply for the planning horizon 20152020, minimizing the environmental impact and taking into account economic criteria.
Its main goals are to increase the international connection capacity, to achieve a higher integration of renewable energies and to meet the increasing needs of industrial activity. As described in previous sections, the electric power sector comprises four different activities: power generation, transmission, distribution and commercialization.
The activities of generation and commercialization are carried out under a free competition regime, whereas transmission and distribution are regulated activities. The main organizations operating in the electric sector are corporate groups that integrate different companies dedicated to different activities (i.
power generation, commercialization or distribution). The main organizations are Endesa S. ; Iberdrola S. ; Gas Natural SDG, S. ; EDP Espaa S. and Viesgo S. Regarding electricity transmission, Red Elctrica de Espaa S. (REE) is the Spanish transmission system operator (TSO).
- REE is responsible for the technical management of the Spanish electricity system;
- Moreover, as the system operator, REE guarantees the continuity and security of the power supply and a proper coordination of the production and transmission system, performing its functions in coordination with the operators and clients of the electricity market;
As the manager of the transmission grid, REE acts as the sole transmitter. REE must also ensure the proper management of the power transmission among external systems, see that the managers of other interconnected grids receive the information they need to carry out safe operations and guarantee third party access under equal conditions.
- The wholesale market is operated by Operador del Mercado IbricoPolo Espaol S;
- OMIE is in charge of financial management, carrying out the necessary functions for the efficient development of the electricity trading market;
Nevertheless, the technical management of the wholesale market is the responsibility of REE, as the TSO of the system. Along with Portugal, Spain set up in 2007 the Iberian Electricity Market (MIBEL), an initiative consisting of the integration of both national markets.
- Finally, CNMC is the public authority for the supervision and regulation of several economic sectors, such as telecommunications and energy, among others;
- Its aim is to regulate the energy sector, and to maintain free competition and transparency in the system, in order to benefit all the stakeholders, including the consumers;
TABLE 3. INSTALLED CAPACITY, ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION
|1980||1990||2000||2010||2015||2016*||Compound annual growth rate** (%) 2000 to 2016*|
|Capacity of electrical plants (GW(e))||G/N|
|– Thermal***||G||13. 48||17. 502||27. 526||51. 659||46. 356||45. 809||3. 23|
|– Nuclear||G||12. 83||7. 33||7. 799||7. 777||7. 573||7. 573||0. 18|
|– Hydro||G||1. 09||16. 815||17. 866||19. 552||20. 353||20. 353||0. 82|
|– Wind||G||20. 203||23. 02||23. 057|
|– Other renewables||G||0. 163||2. 372||5. 502||8. 945||8. 487||8. 29|
|– Total||G||27. 40||41. 81||55. 563||104. 693||106. 247||105. 279||4. 08|
|Electricity production (TWh)||G/N|
|– Thermal***||G||74. 49||73. 68||124. 20||138. 258||123. 184||107. 710||0. 89|
|– Nuclear||G||29. 53||26. 18||62. 21||61. 991||57. 305||58. 619||0. 37|
|– Hydro||G||5. 19||51. 90||31. 81||45. 446||31. 368||39. 855||1. 42|
|– Wind||G||43. 784||49. 325||48. 914|
|– Other renewables||G||6. 94||11. 297||19. 839||19. 533||6. 68|
|– Total*****||G||109. 21||151. 76||225. 16||300. 776||281. 021||274. 631||1. 25|
|Total electricity consumption (TWh)||134. 559||214. 75||277. 996||265. 097||267. 158||4. 08|
*Latest available data. ** Compound annual growth rate: CAGR = (EV/BV) 1/n 1. *** Thermal includes coal, fuel, gas, combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. **** Included in Other renewables since specific data for geothermal are not available. *****Electricity transmission losses are not deducted. ENERGY RELATED RATIOS
|Energy consumption per capita (GJ/capita)**||91. 95||88. 57||76. 30||77. 27|
|Electricity consumption per capita (kWh/capita)||4 612. 76||5 278. 42||4 997. 51||5 027. 78|
|Electricity production/Energy production (%)***||57. 53||75. 05||72. 41||71. 67|
|Nuclear/Total electricity (%)||27. 63||20. 61||20. 43||21. 38|
|Ratio of external dependency (%)****||73. 10||73. 96||72. 97||73. 36|
*Latest available data. **Energy consumption refers to final energy. ***Energy production refers to primary energy. ****Net import/Total energy consumption. : data not available. Source: Libro de la Energa en Espaa 20002016 . The pursuit of nuclear energy in Spain started in 1947, promoted by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC).
- : data not available;
- Sources: Capacity: Informe del Sistema Elctrico Espaol 20002016 ;
- Production and consumption: Libro de la Energa en Espaa 20002016 ;
- TABLE 4;
- One year later, the Nuclear Energy Board (JEN) was created;
JEN was the main organization responsible in the field and had full powers for nuclear matters. Following this, Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 on nuclear energy was promulgated, establishing the basis and the structure of the nuclear energy programme in Spain.
As nuclear activities increased and with them regulation, other organizations and entities were created and the functions formerly attributed to JEN were transferred. The first, ENUSA (3) , was set up in 1972 as a state owned company to manage all nuclear fuel cycle front end activities.
In 1980, Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980 created the Nuclear Safety Council (4) (CSN), the sole organization competent in nuclear safety and radiological protection matters in Spain. ENRESA (5) was created in 1984 as the state owned company responsible for the management of radioactive waste and the dismantling of nuclear facilities in Spain.
In 1986, JEN was eventually replaced by the Centre for Energy Related, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT). These entities continue their operation, playing an important role in this area, as will be described in the following sections.
Regarding the development of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the first generation NPPs started in the 1960s, with the construction of Jos Cabrera, Santa Mara de Garoa and Vandells I. The second generation NPPs began in the early 1970s, with Almaraz I and II, Lemniz I and II, Asc I and II and Cofrentes.
- In the early 1980s, the construction of the NPPs Valdecaballeros I and II, Vandells II and Trillo I started, and the preparatory studies for Trillo II were initiated;
- However, some of the projects and construction of Lemniz, Valdecaballeros and Trillo II were halted during the 1980s;
At present, Spain has seven power reactors in operation in five sites: Almaraz I and II, Asc I and II, Cofrentes, Trillo and Vandells II. Three other power reactors have already been shut down: Jos Cabrera, Vandells I and Santa Mara de Garoa. The following chart shows the current institutional framework of nuclear energy in Spain: FIG. Organizational structure of nuclear power in Spain. The main entities and organizations with powers and responsibilities regarding nuclear power are the CSN and the Government through MITECO. The CSN is the sole nuclear safety and radiation protection authority in Spain.
- The CSN is governed by public law and by its charter;
- It is independent from the central Government and has its own legal personality and its own assets;
- It is accountable to the Congress of Deputies and the Senate;
The CSNs mission is to protect employees, the population at large and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. It accomplishes this by ensuring that nuclear and radioactive facilities are operated safely and by establishing the preventive and corrective measures to apply in all radiological emergencies, no matter their source.
MITECO is organized in two Secretariats of State: the Secretariat of State for Energy and the Secretariat of State for the Environment. Regarding nuclear energy, MITECO holds regulatory and licensing powers, and its responsibilities include undertaking regulatory initiatives, adapting Spanish regulations to legislation of the European Union, planning the energy infrastructure and granting nuclear facilities licensing and authorization.
In addition, MITECO has specific responsibilities regarding radioactive waste, such as training at ENRESA (the public company responsible for radioactive waste management) and monitoring and control of the General Radioactive Waste Plan. Finally, MITECO is responsible of complying with the international compromises in terms of nuclear non-proliferation, security of nuclear facilities and civil liability for nuclear damage. 1 shows ENRESA, ENUSA and ENSA, state owned companies that develop activities related to the nuclear sector:
- ENRESA is in charge of the management of radioactive waste, including spent fuel, as well as the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear installations. Its tutelage corresponds to MITECO through the Secretariat of State for Energy.
- ENUSA carries out nuclear fuel cycle front end activities, which include the management of enriched uranium, the manufacture and supply of nuclear fuel and other activities related to the management and optimization of the nuclear fuel.
- ENSA is a public company that provides large components used for the construction of nuclear facilities.
As shareholders of these companies, the State Society of Industrial Participation (SEPI) and the Centre for Energy Related, Environmental and Technological Research (CIEMAT), are also presented in Fig. 1, together with the share of the companies that they own. The Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities are the bodies in charge of SEPI and CIEMAT, respectively. TABLE 5. STATUS AND PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor Unit||Type||Net Capacity [MW(e)]||Status||Operator||Reactor Supplier||Construction Date||First Criticality Date||First Grid Date||Commercial Date||Shutdown Date||UCF for 2018|
|JOSE CABRERA-1||PWR||141||Permanent Shutdown||UFG||WH||1964-06-24||1968-06-30||1968-07-14||1969-08-13||2006-04-30|
|SANTA MARIA DE GARONA||BWR||446||Permanent Shutdown||NUCLENOR||GE||1966-09-01||1970-11-05||1971-03-02||1971-05-11||2017-08-02|
|Data source: IAEA – Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).|
|Note: Table is completely generated from PRIS data to reflect the latest available information and may be more up to date than the text of the report.|
Source: IAEA, Power Reactor Information System PRIS . In 2017, the net nuclear electricity capacity of the seven operative reactors (7. 1 GW(e)) represented a share of 7% of the total net capacity. The net electricity generated was 55 609 GWh, representing 21. 2% of total production. In order to provide an overview of the performance of operating NPPs, the table below shows the main parameters of each plant in 2017.
In addition, certain projects regarding nuclear power require an environmental impact statement, which is issued by the Secretariat of State for the Environment of MITECO as the environmental body. Apart from the regulatory bodies, Fig.
The shutdown units and their decommissioning process are described in Section 2. TABLE 6. PERFORMANCE OF OPERATIVE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Rating (MW)||Self consum.||Gross electricity generation (GWh)||Reactor shutdowns||Solid waste (m 3 )||Performance factors*|
|Automatic trips||Unplanned shutdowns||Planned shutdowns (including refueling)||Produced||Shipped out||LF||TAF||UCF||UCLF|
|Almarz I||1 049. 4||3. 65%||8 048. 06||1||0||1||58. 35||25. 58||87. 55%||90. 01%||88. 76%||1. 31%|
|Almarz II||1 044. 5||3. 85%||8 937. 90||0||0||1||58. 35||25. 85||97. 69%||98. 82%||98. 54%||0. 00%|
|Asc I||1 032. 5||4. 26%||7 844. 39||0||1||1||69. 74||21. 34||86. 73%||87. 78%||86. 58%||3. 32%|
|Asc II||1 027. 2||4. 12%||8 041. 73||0||0||1||45. 10||12. 98||89. 37%||90. 37%||89. 58%||0. 31%|
|Cofrentes||1 092. 0||3. 96%||7 340. 07||0||1||1||253. 5||119. 18||76. 73%||80. 26%||78. 20%||11. 11%|
|Vandells II||1 087. 1||3. 94%||9 365. 91||0||0||0||51. 7||44. 22||98. 35%||100. 00%||99. 60%||0. 09%|
|Trillo||1 066. 0||6. 42%||8 530. 71||0||0||1||33. 44||42. 24||91. 35%||92. 09%||91. 85%||0. 07%|
|OVERALL||7 398. 7||4. 31%||58 108. 77||1||2||6||570. 18||291. 39||89. 68%||91. 33%||90. 44%||2. 32%|
* LF = load factor, TAF = time availability factor, UCF = unit capability factor, UCLF = unplanned capability loss factor. Source: Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN, former UNESA) . The power level of NPPs in Spain has been continuously upgraded since the beginning of nuclear power operation in Spain. Currently, the total net increment is equivalent to the operation of a medium sized power plant.
Specifically, Asc I and II, Almaraz I and II, Cofrentes and Vandells II were refurbished and up-rated in the past decade. Regarding the licensing regime, the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities (Royal Decree No.
1836 of 3 December 1999) establishes the authorization procedure, including licence renewal. According to this regulation, MITECO is responsible for granting the authorizations needed for the siting, construction, operation, modification, transport, dismantling and decommissioning of facilities.
Such authorizations require a mandatory report on nuclear safety and radiation protection matters, issued by the CSN. This report is binding in the case of refusal and regarding the conditions it sets for granting the authorization.
The licensing process is further described in Section 3. At present, the nuclear units in operation are 30 to 34 years old (in terms of commercial operation). A periodic safety review of every NPP is performed every 10 years for an overall assessment of the installation during the period considered.
Based on that assessment, a licence renewal is typically granted for a period of 10 years. The current licences for the plants in operation are valid from 2010 for Vandells II and Almaraz I and II, 2011 for Cofrentes and Asc I and II, and 2014 for Trillo.
After the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the European Union agreed to undertake a join action to ensure the integrity of all European plants. Hence, all plants were required to perform stress/resistance tests in order to assess their capacity to face events beyond those for which they were designed.
The tests should be performed considering extreme natural phenomena that could jeopardize the facilities and lead to a severe accident. Spanish NPPs carried out several verifications and revisions in order to ensure that all measures to address events were operative, regardless of whether or not the measures were considered in the design.
In addition, the CSN issued complementary technical instructions to all operators of the Spanish NPP fleet in order to undertake the resistance tests agreed in the European Union. Furthermore, aiming to further strengthen the capacity of response of the NPPs to exceptional situations, the CSN issued to each operating plant instructions that require them to identify the additional measures necessary to mitigate the consequences of events that could lead to fire or explosions that would entail losses of large areas of the plants.
At present, there are three shutdown NPPs: Vandells I, Jos Cabrera and Santa Mara de Garoa. As shown in Table 5, Vandells I ceased operation in 1990, Jos Cabrera in 2006 and Santa Mara de Garoa in 2013. As mentioned in Section 2.
2, ENRESA is in charge of the dismantling and decommissioning of the Spanish NPPs. The licence transfer from the operator to ENRESA was declared by ministerial order, along with the authorization for the dismantling. Table 6 presents the details of the decommissioning process of Vandells I and Jos Cabrera. STATUS OF DECOMMISSIONING PROCESS OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS
|Reactor unit||Shutdown reason||Decommission strategy||Current decommissioning phase||Current fuel management phase||Decommissioning licensee||Licence terminated year|
|Vandells I||After an operation incident||Deferred dismantling, including partial dismantling and placing remaining radiological areas into safe enclosure||Passive safe enclosure period||Shipment to a reprocessing plant||ENRESA|
|Jos Cabrera||Other||Immediate dismantling and removal of all radioactive materials||Final dismantling||Dry storage period||ENRESA|
: data not available. Source: IAEA, Power Reactor Information System PRIS RDS2 . Vandells I was a 480 MW(e) gas graphite reactor that operated between 1972 and 1989. The plant was shut down by ministerial order on 31 July 1990. The operation licence ownership was transferred from HIFRENSA to ENRESA in 1998 by ministerial order, which also authorized the dismantling activities.
Santa Mara de Garoa is not included because the dismantling activities have not begun yet. TABLE 7. Between 1998 and 2003 ENRESA carried out activities for the partial dismantling of the plant. In 2003, the vessel of the reactor was sealed to start a passive safe storage period.
This phase of latency was authorized by a resolution from the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade on 17 January 2005. During the latency period (around 25 years) the radiological activity of the internal structures of the reactor box will decay to approximately 5% of the initial value.
- On completion of the latency period, by 2028, the last phase of dismantling will begin, which includes the removal of the reactor sail and its internal components, and the complete release of the site;
Jos Cabrera operated between 1969 and 2006. Ministerial Order ITC/1652/2006, of 20 April 2006, declared the definitive cease of its operation. Ministerial Order ITC/204/2010, of 1 February 2010, authorized the transfer of the operating licence from Gas Natural SDG to ENRESA and authorized the dismantling activities.
Such activities continue at present and are expected to be finished by 2019. An individual storage facility (ISF) has been in operation since 2008 on the site. In 2009, the spent fuel housed in the NPP pool (377 fuel assemblies) was loaded into 12 dry storage casks and taken to the ISF.
Santa Mara de Garoa operated between 1971 and 2012. Ministerial Order IET/1302/2013, of 5 July 2013, ordered operations to cease at the plant. Based on Article 28 of the Regulation of Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, the plant operator applied to renew the operation licence.
- On 8 February 2017, the CSN issued a favourable report on the renewal of the licence;
- However, the renewal was denied by Ministerial Order ETU/754/2017, of 1 August 2017;
- The ministerial order stated that the NPP was no longer necessary to guarantee the power supply at the environmental and economic conditions deemed appropriate by the Government;
Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Architectural engineers The main Spanish engineering companies are Empresarios Agrupados, Initec, Inypsa and Sener, which have played an important role in the Spanish nuclear sector.
They have collaborated in launching first generation NPPs and on successive projects, thus increasing progressively the nuclear installed capacity. In addition, other companies, such as Iberdrola Ingeniera y Construccin S.
U or Tcnicas Reunidas S. have made achievements in the nuclear sector. Their importance lies not only in their contribution to the Spanish nuclear sector, but also in their increasing international presence, which has become one of their main traits. The construction projects of the first NPPs in Spain were turnkey projects.
In subsequent projects, local engineering companies have been involved, yet the scope of each project has been different. Hence, the engineering companies have focused on different activities such as design, licensing, procurement operations and collaboration in startup and tests.
There are currently no NPPs under construction. Therefore, these companies have focused their action on other activities, such as operational support, shutdown and decommissioning, research and development and radioactive waste engineering. NSSS manufacturers and component suppliers The main Spanish NSSS manufacturer is Equipos Nucleares S.
(ENSA). ENSA is a state owned company, owned by the State Society for Industrial Participation, as described in Section 2. The mission of ENSA is to meet the demands of the Spanish nuclear power programme, providing some of the large components used for the construction of nuclear facilities.
ENSA designs, produces and inspects primary circuit equipment and components for NPPs. Its manufacturing plant is located in Maliao (Cantabria). ENSA manufactures primary circuit equipment (reactor vessels, steam generators, etc. ), as well as heat exchangers, racks and casks for storage and transportation of spent fuel assemblies, among others.
In addition, ENSA has a division that provides services such as maintenance and repair of facilities, fuel managing, decontamination and dismantling. Since its creation in 1973, ENSA has provided primary circuit equipment and components to the second and third generation Spanish NPPs.
At present, it provides the dual-purpose casks for spent fuel storage and transport that are used in the ISF of Trillo NPP, as well as the casks that will be used in the ISFs of other NPPs, such as Asc, Almaraz and Santa Mara de Garoa. On the international level, ENSA exports components to several countries, including Argentina, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, India, Republic of Korea, United Kingdom and the United States of America.
ENSA has also manufactured the heat exchangers for the research and development (R&D) Jules Horowitz reactor (JHR), and will manufacture the fabrication of some components of the nuclear fusion reactor ITER.
Other component suppliers NPPs built in Spain contain a large range of domestically made equipment and components. A list of national manufacturers of different components is here provided:
- Turbine: Enwesa Operaciones S. , Tamoin S. , Vlvulas y Conexiones Ibricas S.
- Pumps: Chepro, Amara S. , Areva Madrid.
- Air compressors: Amara S. , Tamoin S. , Alfa Laval Iberia S.
- Valves: Ringo Vlvulas S. , Chepro, Enwesa Operaciones S.
- Electric equipment: Gamesa Electric, Elecor S.
- Instrumentation and control: Indra Sistemas, TSI-Tnicas y Servicios de Ingeniera S.
A full directory of the companies of the nuclear sector can be found at: https://www. sne. es/images/stories/recursos/enuclear/2017/Directorio2017_Empresas_Instituciones. pdf Owners and operators There are several modalities of ownership and operation in the Spanish NPPs: by a sole company, under co-ownership or by economic interest groupings (AIE). OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF SPANISH NPPS
|Cofrentes||Iberdrola Generacin Nuclear S.||Iberdrola Generacin Nuclear S.|
|Almaraz I Almaraz II||Iberdrola Generacin S. (52. 7%); Endesa Generacin S. (36%); Gas Natural SDG, S. * (11. 3%)||Centrales Nucleares Almaraz-Trillo A.|
|Trillo||Iberdrola Generacin S. (48%); Gas Natural SDG, S. A (34. 5%); EDP Espaa S. (15. 5%); Nuclenor, S. (2%)|
|Asc I||Endesa Generacin S.||Asociacin Nuclear Asc-Vandells A.|
|Asc II||Endesa Generacin S. (85%); Iberdrola Generacin S. (15%)|
|Vandells II||Endesa Generacin S. (72%); Iberdrola Generacin S. (28%)|
* Due to the acquisition of Unin Fenosa Generacin S. , by Gas Natural SDG, S. , the ownership was transferred. The transfer was authorized by order of the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade in 2010. Table 8 only includes the current operative NPPs. Regarding the shutdown NPPs (further described in Section 2. 6), the operators and licensees were:
- Vandells I: HIFRENSA (Hispano-Francesa de Energa Nuclear S. , a consortium of several Spanish and French companies).
- Jos Cabrera: Unin Fenosa S. ; in 2009, the ownership was transferred from Unin Fenosa, S. A to Gas Natural SDG, S. due to the acquisition of the company.
- Santa Mara de Garoa: Nuclenor, company owned 50% by Iberdrola S. and 50% by Endesa S.
As mentioned in Section 2. 3, after the definitive shutdown of a unit, the licence is transferred to ENRESA for its dismantling. Such was the case for Vandells I and Jos Cabrera. Santa Mara de Garoa has not initiated the dismantling activities yet, and thus the transfer of ownership to ENRESA has not been declared.
Table 8 presents the different owners, along with their share, as well as the different operators of Spanish NPPs. TABLE 8. Operation service suppliers and supporting organizations Several companies provide operational services in the nuclear sector, including: TECNATOM (comprised of the principal electricity companies), Idom, LAINSA, ENWESA (comprised of ENSA (75%) and Westinghouse Technology Services (25%)) and NUSIM.
TECNATOM provides training services to NPP operating personnel and has pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) simulators. TECNATOM has also carried out several in-service inspection and maintenance activities, giving support to the Spanish NPPs, and it is expanding its international presence to Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
LAINSA, ENWESA and NUSIM focus on maintenance of and operational support to NPPs, quality assurance, radiological protection and various activities. Article 38 bis of Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 on nuclear energy establishes that the management of radioactive waste, including spent fuel, and the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities is an essential public service.
Hence, this public service corresponds exclusively to the State, which has commissioned it to ENRESA. At present, the radioactive waste management and decommissioning procedures are regulated by the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities (Royal Decree No.
- 1836 of 3 December 1999 ) and by Royal Decree No;
- 102 of 21 February 2014 on the safe and responsible management of spent fuel and radioactive waste;
- These regulations establish the actual framework for dismantling and decommissioning activities;
Such activities require, on one hand, a dismantling licence, granted by MITECO, and on the other hand, the transfer of ownership from the prior operator to ENRESA. In addition, according to the above mentioned regulation, the holder of the operating licence must condition the radioactive waste generated during NPP operation, and unload the fuel from the reactor and the pools during the pre-dismantling phase, prior to the granting of the dismantling licence.
Once the pre-dismantling activities have been performed, the licence for dismantling is granted, along with the authorization for the transfer of ownership to ENRESA, which becomes responsible for dismantling and decommissioning the NPP.
On completion of the dismantling activities, and following verification of compliance with what is established in the site restoration plan and other required technical conditions, MITECO grants the declaration of decommissioning. To date, as described in Section 2.
- 3, three nuclear units have been shut down: Vandells I (in 1990), Jos Cabrera (in 2006), and Santa Mara de Garoa (in 2013);
- However, only two of them have started their dismantling activities (6) : Vandells I in 1998 and Jos Cabrera in 2010;
Vandells I operated between 1972 and 1989. The dismantling licence was granted by ministerial order in 1998, along with the transfer of ownership from the operator to ENRESA. As described in Section 2. 3, ENRESA carried out the dismantling activities between 1998 and 2003.
Vandells I is in a latency period of 25 years (the latency authorization was granted by ministerial order in 2005). During this period, the non-released parts of the site remain under the responsibility and surveillance of ENRESA.
On completion of the latency period around 2028, ENRESA will start the last dismantling phase, including removal of the reactor box and its internals and the complete release of the site. Jos Cabrera operated between 1969 and 2006. In May 2006, Jos Cabrera was shut down by Ministerial Order ITC/1652/2006, of 20 April 2006, from the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, which declared the definitive shutdown of the plant.
The licence for dismantling and the transfer of licence ownership to ENRESA were granted by Ministerial Order ITC/204/2010, of 1 February 2010. The dismantling is expected to finish in 2019. An ISF has been in operation since 2008.
In 2009, the spent fuel housed in the NPP pool (377 fuel assemblies) was loaded into 12 dry storage casks that were taken to its ISF. The ISF also houses another four casks containing special waste, such as reactor internals. Fuel cycle front end activities The front end of the nuclear fuel cycle includes all the processes and activities related to the production of nuclear energy.
- In Spain, as mentioned in Section 2;
- 1, the state owned company ENUSA is the organization in charge of all the nuclear fuel cycle front end activities, which includes the management of enriched uranium, the manufacture and supply of nuclear fuel and other activities related to the management and optimization of nuclear fuel;
This section presents a description of the operation of the different fuel cycle front end activities, to include mining and milling, uranium conversion, uranium enrichment and the manufacturing of fuel assemblies. Mining and milling There are no mining installations currently in operation in Spain.
- Due to the low uranium market price, ENUSAs mining activities in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca) stopped at the end of 2000;
- The former uranium mining and milling facilities are at different stages of decommissioning and environmental restoration of the sites is ongoing;
The Quercus manufacturing plant of uranium concentrates located in Saelices El Chico (Salamanca) was definitively shut down in 2003 by Ministerial Order ECO/2275/2003, of 14 July 2003, and will start dismantling shortly. ENUSA applied for the dismantling and closure licence on 14 September 2015.
The request is currently being assessed by the CSN. Nevertheless, regarding the supply of uranium concentrates, ENUSA owns 10% of COMINAK, a company from Niger, owned by several foreign companies engaged in uranium mining and uranium concentrates supply activities.
Uranium conversion and enrichment There are no uranium conversion and enrichment facilities in Spain. ENUSA is in charge of uranium enrichment and conversion services required for the supply of enriched uranium to the Spanish nuclear reactors, acting as a procurement manager.
ENUSA has signed several contracts with companies abroad with this purpose. Fuel fabrication ENUSA operates a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant located in Juzbado (Salamanca) that produces fuel elements for most PWRs and BWRs in Spain (all the Spanish plants, except for Trillo NPP) and for some reactors abroad.
In 2017, the Juzbado nuclear fuel fabrication facility manufactured 737 fuel assemblies containing 292. 8 tU. Of this total, 371 fuel assemblies containing 156. 9 tU, representing 54% of the total production, were exported to Belgium, France and Germany. Acquisitions of uranium concentrates were from the Russian Federation (36. In Spain, radioactive waste is classified into low and intermediate level waste, high level waste and special waste:
- Low and intermediate level waste (LILW): half-life under 30 years and very low content in long lived radionuclides. This group includes very low level waste (VLLW).
- High level waste (HLW): semi-disintegration period exceeding 30 years and high content in long lived radionuclides. This group includes spent fuel (SF).
- Special waste (7) (SW): intermediate level waste that, due to its radiological features, cannot be managed as LILW.
In Spain, radioactive waste management, including spent fuel, and the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities constitute an essential public service to be provided by the State entrusted to ENRESA. Hence, the back end activities (except for reprocessing, not performed in Spain) are carried out by ENRESA, specifically according to Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014 :
- Treating and conditioning radioactive waste, without prejudice to the responsibilities that correspond to the generators of these materials or to the holders of the licences;
- Locating sites, designing, constructing and operating storage and disposal facilities;
- Establishing systems that guarantee the safe management of radioactive waste in its facilities for storage and disposal;
- Establishing systems for the collection, transfer and transportation of radioactive waste;
- Managing the different operations related to the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities;
- Adopting security measures in the transport of radioactive waste, in accordance with the provisions of specific regulations on the transport of dangerous goods and with what the authorities and competent bodies determine;
- Acting, in the event of nuclear or radiological emergencies, in the manner and circumstances required by the competent authorities;
- Establishing training plans and research and development plans within the framework of the State Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation, which cover the needs of the General Radioactive Waste Plan;
- Carrying out the appropriate technical and economic studies, considering the deferred costs and outlining the proper economic policy;
- Managing the fund for financing the General Radioactive Waste Plan activities;
- Preparing and managing the national inventory of radioactive waste.
Nevertheless, the State is the owner of radioactive waste once it is definitively disposed of. General Radioactive Waste Plan The Government is responsible for establishing the policy regarding radioactive waste management, including spent nuclear fuel, and the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, through the approval of the General Radioactive Waste Plan (GRWP) .
2%), Niger (33. 6%), Namibia (17. 5%) and Australia (12. 7%). Back End Activities The back end of the nuclear fuel cycle includes the activities related to the management, storage, reprocessing and ultimate disposal of radioactive waste.
The GRWP is the basic reference document that deals with all the strategies and actions to be undertaken in Spain in the different fields of radioactive waste management and the dismantling of nuclear facilities, along with the corresponding economic-financial study.
According to law, ENRESA is responsible for drawing up reviews of the GRWP and submitting them to MITECO. The GRWP is then submitted for its approval to the Government, with previous reports by the CSN and after hearing the autonomous communities in relation to land planning and environment.
The approval of the plan also requires, according to current legislation, a strategic environmental statement to be granted by the Secretariat of State for the Environment of MITECO. The first GRWP was approved in 1987. The sixth GRWP has in force since its approval on 23 June 2006 by the Spanish Government. The basic reference scenario established is:
- A service lifetime of 40 years for operating NPPs;
- Open fuel cycle; that is, the option of reprocessing the spent fuel is not contemplated.
- Total dismantling (Level 3) of the light water NPPs.
The seventh GRWP is pending elaboration and will be based on the Comprehensive Energy and Climate Plan that the Government is developing, when it is approved. Storage of spent fuel and management of high level waste Since the 1983 National Energy Plan, irradiated fuel is considered HLW in Spain. The consecutive General Radioactive Waste Plan established the open cycle as the reference scenario, where reprocessing is not an option; the only exception is some spent fuel from Jos Cabrera and Santa Mara de Garoa and all the spent fuel from Vandells I, which was sent abroad for reprocessing.
- Therefore, all the spent fuel generated by the Spanish reactors is stored on site in the plant pools;
- In view of the foreseen saturation of the capacity of these pools, the original storage racks were progressively replaced with other more compact units throughout the 1990s;
In most cases, this has allowed the need for spent fuel storage capacity additional to that provided by the pools to be deferred significantly over time. More recently, additional storage capacity was needed in most of the NPPs. An ISF was therefore built and commissioned on the site of several NPPs (Trillo, in 2002, and Asc in 2013) while others (Santa Mara de Garoa, Almaraz and Cofrentes) are currently in the process of licensing their ISFs.
- Jos Cabrera NPP, currently decommissioning, built and commissioned its ISF in 2008, before starting its dismantling process;
- For all of them, the spent fuel, after the period required for refrigeration, is transferred to those ISFs;
The basic strategy set out in the sixth GRWP for the provision of additional capacity for the short and medium term storage of spent fuel is the construction of a centralized storage facility (CSF) with an operating life of 60 years. The CSF will house spent fuel, HLW and special waste using a dry storage system, until the availability of a solution for its final disposal.
- The CSF storage strategy was proposed to the Government in 2004, unanimously, by the Parliamentary Committee on Industry, which comprised representatives from all parliamentary groups;
- In 2006, the same Parliamentary Committee approved a non-law proposition on the set-up of an Interministerial Committee responsible for establishing the criteria to be met by the site to host the CSF;
The site selection process (8) finished with the Agreement of the Council of Ministers of 30 December 2011, approving the designation of the Municipality of Villar de Caas (province of Cuenca) as the selected site. Once the site was designated, the licensing process started.
The process requires a preliminary licence, the construction licence and the operating licence, in accordance with specific nuclear legislation. These licences are granted by MITECO, and require a favourable report from the CSN.
In addition, the preliminary licence requires an environmental impact statement, according to environmental legislation, to be issued by the Secretariat of State for the Environment of MITECO. In January 2014, ENRESA requested preliminary and construction licences, according to the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities .
- In July 2015 the CSN issued a favourable report for the preliminary licence;
- However, as the environmental impact assessment of the project is in progress at present, the preliminary licence has not been granted yet;
The CSN report associated with the construction licence is still pending. According to the current progress of the project, the CSF could be operational as early as 2024. Once the CSF is available, spent fuel from all the Spanish light water reactors will be gradually moved to the CSF.
- However, an interim storage facility is expected to be available in late 2021, to host the first casks, while the main facility is being constructed;
- Reprocessing of High Level Radioactive Waste As previously mentioned, Spain does not perform reprocessing activities;
In the past, Spain opted for the reprocessing of the spent fuel from Vandells I, Jos Cabrera and Santa Mara de Garoa NPPs. This practice was interrupted in 1982, except for Vandells I, which shut down in 1989; its fuel had to be entirely reprocessed for technical reasons.
- The fuel elements from Jos Cabrera and Santa Mara de Garoa NPPs were sent abroad for reprocessing;
- The contracts agreed that neither the recovered fissile material nor the radioactive waste resulting from reprocessing was to be sent back to Spain;
However, for Vandells I NPP, as committed to in the reprocessing contracts, a small quantity of HLW and special waste will be brought back to Spain to be managed in the CSF, when available. Disposal of spent fuel and radioactive waste In Spain, LILW and VLLW are managed separately from spent fuel and HLW (except for special waste, which is managed as spent fuel and HLW).
LILW and VLLW are conditioned and definitively disposed of in El Cabril disposal facility, which is operated by ENRESA. El Cabril has been in operation since 1992 for LILW. On 21 July 2008, the former Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism granted a licence for the VLLW disposal facility situated on the same site, consisting of four cells with a total capacity of 130 000 m 3.
At present, two of the four cells authorized have been constructed and operative since 2008 and 2016, respectively. According to the latest estimation of ENRESA, the total volume of LILW and VLLW to be managed, conditioned and definitively disposed at El Cabril will be 201.
705 m 3 , 55% of it VLLW. Regarding the disposal of spent fuel and HLW, Directive 2011/70/Euratom (9) acknowledges that the idea generally accepted by technicians is that deep geological disposal is the most sustainable and safe option.
Hence, in line with the directive and with broad international consensus, the preferred option for spent fuel and HLW in Spain is deep geological disposal. It is estimated that the definitive disposal facility could start operation in 2068. It will house spent fuel, HLW and special waste.
However, until a solution for disposal is available, the strategy in Spain is to construct a CSF, as described above. ENRESA estimates that the total amount of material to be disposed of in Spain is 6 672 tU of spent fuel, 734 m 3 of special waste derived from the dismantling of the reactors and 12 m 3 of HLW derived from the reprocessing of the fuel of Vandells I NPP (10).
The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities draws up a Research and Development National Plan every four years. The plan defines the general features of the Spanish R&D and innovation policy, defining the funding mechanisms. At present, R&D in Spain is guided by the Spanish Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for 20132020 .
Within the framework of the strategy, the National Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation for 20172020 was launched in 2017. The plan sets up the main challenges of R&D in Spain, among them, safe, efficient and clean energy.
One of the main goals of this challenge is to strengthen the research on nuclear energy in order to ensure nuclear safety, radiological protection and safe radioactive waste management. According to the plan, nuclear R&D activities should contribute to the power generation without emitting greenhouse gases.
The main Spanish organizations involved in nuclear R&D are, as institutions, CIEMAT, ENRESA, and CSN and, as platforms of R&D, CEIDEN and PEPRI. CIEMAT is the Centre for Energy Related, Environmental and Technological Research.
It is an institution attached to the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities, created in 1986 on the basis of the former Nuclear Energy Board (JEN). CIEMAT centres its activities in R&D on energy, the environment and technology, and among them, on nuclear research.
Within this field, CIEMAT focus on both fusion and fission energy. Its activities on fission energy research address nuclear safety, nuclear innovation and radioactive waste management. Regarding fusion energy, CIEMAT has three main areas of research: fusion physics, fusion engineering and fusion technologies.
Fusion research is developed in the National Fusion Laboratory. ENRESA, in addition to managing radioactive waste and dismantling nuclear facilities, carries out R&D activities related to those tasks, focusing its efforts in areas where industrial solutions are not fully implemented and where there is potential for improvement and optimization. The plan sets up four research areas:
- Area 1: Waste technology and know-how.
- Area 2: Technology for treatment, conditioning and dismantling processes.
- Area 3: Confinement systems and materials.
- Area 4: Safety assessment and modelling.
As for the CSN, it carries out R&D activities in the fields of nuclear safety and radiation protection. This work is fundamental as scientific and technical support for the CSN, since it uses the scientific evidence resulting from R&D projects to define rules and regulations, monitor nuclear and radioactive facilities and ensure that staff stays abreast of cutting-edge technology contributions to these disciplines.
In order to implement its R&D activities, ENRESA defines multiannual R&D programmes. The current framework is established by the seventh R&D plan . The strategic priorities and leading lines of research are defined through R&D plans with a four year horizon.
For its development, the CSN promotes several projects, executed under its supervision by domestic and international organizations of great prestige. The current plan is the R&D Plan of the CSN, 20162020 . This plan includes a number of projects undertaken in collaboration with different national and international organizations, such us universities, public centres and private companies.
The plan focus on two areas: nuclear safety and radiation protection. CEIDEN is the Technology Platform on Fission Nuclear Energy. It was set up in 2007 by the former Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade, in collaboration with the CSN, companies from the electric industry, and other agents involved in the nuclear sector.
The platform is currently composed of more than 100 members. The aim of the platform is to coordinate the different national programmes and plans on R&D, as well as to foster the participation of Spanish companies or institutions in international R&D programmes. The programmes in which CEIDEN is involved are:
- Dry storage and transport of spent fuel.
- Study and use of materials coming from Jos Cabrera NPP: concrete and internals.
- Capacities of the spanish nuclear industry.
- Ceiden Training +.
- KEEP: Knowledge exchange, elicitation and preservation.
- Lab for calibration of neutronic patterns.
- International programmes: Jules Horowitz Reactor Programme and ESNII Spain.
Finally, PEPRI is the National Platform of R&D on Radiologic Protection. It was launched in 2014 by the Spanish Society of Radiologic Protection. The objective of PEPRI is to foster R&D activities regarding protection against ionizing radiation. It also aims to coordinate the participation of Spain in international R&D programmes on radiologic protection, and especially in Horizon 2020, the framework programme for R&D in the European Union.
At present, Spain is not engaged in the development of advanced nuclear technologies. Spain, as a member of Euratom, develops R&D activities within this framework. The Euratom Programme , as part of Horizon 2020 (the European Union Framework Programme for Research and Innovation), aims to reinforce outcomes under the three priorities of Horizon 2020: excellent science, industrial leadership and social challenges.
The Euratom Programme aims to pursue nuclear research and training activities, with an emphasis on continuously improving nuclear safety, security and radiation protection, notably to contribute to the long term decarburization of the energy system in a safe, efficient and secure way.
The actions of the Euratom Programme focus on two areas: (i) nuclear fission and radiation protection and (ii) fusion research aiming at developing magnetic confinement fusion as an energy source. Also under Horizon 2020, the European Joint Programme Cofund (EJP-Cofund) is a cofunding action designed to support coordinated national research and innovation programmes.
In the nuclear field, Spain is currently preparing, along with other partners, participation in the European Joint Research Programme in the management and disposal of radioactive waste, which will involve MITECO; the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities; and ENRESA, among others.
Regarding nuclear fusion, the Euratom Programme provides a large contribution to ITER, the international project that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion on Earth as a sustainable energy source.
In addition, EUROfusion , launched in 2014, carries out research funded jointly by Euratom and the Member States, including Spain. EUROfusion manages a comprehensive programme of research projects that contribute to the realization of the Road Map to Fusion Electricity.
Also within the European scope, Spain participates in the European Strategic Energy Technology Plan (SET-Plan) . SET-Plan establishes the road map to develop energy technologies that are feasible, clean, efficient and low carbon, by means of coordinated R&D.
Within its framework, in 2007 the European Technology Platform on Sustainable Nuclear Energy (SNETP) was launched, with the objective of retaining its leading technological and industrial position in the field of civil nuclear technology. This platform aims to fully support R&D programmes and the role of nuclear energy in Europes energy mix, its contributions to the security and competitiveness of its energy supply, as well as the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
SNETP gathers more than 100 members from industry, research, academia, technical safety organizations, non-governmental organizations and national representatives. Some of the Spanish members include CIEMAT, CSIC, Deloitte, ENSA, Endesa, Iberdrola, Empresarios Agrupados and Tecnatom.
In addition, as key instruments of SET-Plan, the European Industrial Initiatives are industry led programmes that aim to boost research and innovation and to accelerate deployment of the technologies. Particularly, the European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative (ESNII) , launched in 2010, aims to contribute to the development of a new generation of nuclear energy reactors designed to respond to Europes growing energy needs.
- At present, five Spanish organizations are members of ESNII: Iberdrola, Tecnatom, CIEMAT, Universidad Politcnica de Valencia and Empresarios Agrupados;
- On the international level, Spain participates in programmes and committees of both the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA/OECD) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA);
Under the auspice of NEA, Spain participates in the following experimental projects, among others: NEA Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation Project Phase 2 (ATLAS-2), NEA Behaviour of Iodine Project Phase 3 (BIP-3), NEA Benchmark Study of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF) Project, NEA Cabri International Project (CIP), and NEA PRISME-2 Project.
- Finally, within the framework of the IAEA, Spain is one of 42 members of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO), whose objective is to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century in a sustainable manner;
Nuclear engineering and master programmes are active in three Spanish universities and in CIEMAT. The Spanish National Accreditation Agency (ANECA) certifies the quality of Spanish nuclear education. The Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM) has received the ANECA Quality Award for its Masters in Nuclear Science and Technology.
Furthermore, the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) includes a Masters of Nuclear Engineering in the training project InnoEnergy (European Masters in Nuclear Energy (MSc EMINE)). Apart from universities, research institutes are also active in education and training.
For example, a one year Masters in Nuclear Technology and Applications was established by CIEMAT. Nuclear research is also conducted in other research institutes involved with education programmes and the tutoring of doctoral theses, whose collaboration with other national and international institutions (e.
universities such as Nevada or Penn State) have enhanced an increasing mobility and have attracted new students who will compensate for the rising need of human resources in the field. It is also worth mentioning the important role played by the Nuclear Industry Forum and the Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) regarding education and training: seminars, summer school programmes and the provision of grants and prizes for students.
Finally, in order to ensure that NPPs and other industrial facilities have optimally qualified operations, maintenance, engineering and technical support personnel whose performance serves to improve safety, availability and economic efficiency, TECNATOM provides overall training services in the following fields: process technology, operation and maintenance, non-destructive testing of materials, human factors and management skills.
- Similarly, the engineering company Empresarios Agrupados and CIEMAT are also setting up new training programmes;
- Stakeholder communication is present in the activities performed by the different organizations related to nuclear energy;
The most important mission of the CSN is to guarantee that people and the environment are protected against radiation. This objective includes working with maximum transparency to ensure that the public is duly informed. The obligations for the Council regarding information and communication are channelled along three routes: information for state institutions, in the areas with nearby nuclear installations, and for the public.
With respect to communication, one of the most important means is its web site ( http://www. csn. es ), which provides interest groups and the public with documents offering detailed information on the work done in the field.
This information includes the minutes of the plenary meetings, inspection reports and other useful information, such as publications, current regulations, answers to parliamentary questions, operating status of NPPs, events reported by the licensees and the environmental values collected.
- Furthermore, since 2007, it is possible to access the Integrated Plant Supervision System (SISC), which has become a fundamental tool with respect to the transparency of communication with the public on the assessment of NPP performance and the planning of its regulatory efforts;
In addition, Law No. 33 of 7 November 2007, which amended Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980, which created the CSN, was very ambitious in terms of public information. The aim was to increase the transparency of the CSN and to promote confidence among the public regarding the activities of the Council.
The law also contemplates the existence of an Advisory Committee for Public Information and Participation, made up of representatives of various social organizations and institutions, the mission of which is to make recommendations to improve transparency and propose measures to stimulate access to information and the participation of the public in areas for which the Council is responsible.
MITECO also provides information through its web pages ( http://www. minetad. gob. es for energy issues and http://www. mapama. gob. es /en/ for environmental issues). It establishes that corresponding documentation must be transferred to the autonomous communities with responsibilities for land planning and the environment whose territory houses the facility prior to granting licences for nuclear installations.
- Within the arrangements for the request for a preliminary licence for an NPP, a specific public information process is envisaged;
- According to the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, MITECO shall send a copy of the request to the respective regional Government office for the latter to open a period of public information;
This period is initiated by the publication in the official state gazette and in that of the corresponding autonomous community of an announcement setting out the objective and the main characteristics of the facility. This announcement shall establish that those persons and entities that consider themselves to be affected by the project may, within 30 days, present whatever written allegations they deem to be appropriate.
- As for nuclear regulatory matters, MITECO publishes on its web page e bills and other general regulation provisions as part of the legislative process;
- The Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities contemplates the operation of local information committees, which are forums for information and public participation whose objective is to inform and educate the local population on nuclear safety and radiation protection, for which an annual meeting is held and presided over by the MITECO;
As for environmental matters, Spain ratified the Aarhus Convention in 2004, which was materialized in national legislation through Law No. 27 of 18 July 2006, which regulates the right of access to information, public participation and access to justice in relation to environmental issues.
Finally, Parliament approved Law No. 19 of 9 December 2013, on transparency, access to public information and good governance. The aim of the law is to strengthen and improve the transparency of public activity, to regulate and guarantee the right of access to information related to public activity and to set up the duties derived from good governance, which public managers must fulfil.
In order to comply with Law No. 19 of 2013, the Spanish government created a transparency portal ( http://transparencia. gob. es ) in 2014. The portal publishes all the information related to the National State Administration that Law No. 19 of 2013 requires, as well as all the information that people usually request.
- Derived from Law No;
- 19 of 2013, ENRESA and the CSN have also set up specific transparency portals (11) for their own activity;
- The aim is to foster transparency and provide structured and easily accessed information;
Nuclear and radiological emergencies in Spain are regulated by the national public protection system and the requirements set out for using nuclear power and ionizing radiation. Public protection serves as the basis for the general principles of organization, the responsibilities and the rights and duties of the citizens, the public administrations and the licensees of practices regarding the planning, preparedness and response to emergencies.
- There are also established emergency plans for actions outside the facilities when accidents occurring within have the potential to affect third parties;
- From the nuclear regulation perspective, emergency plans are required in every radiological practice, with specific criteria set for the levels and techniques of intervention as well as the protective measures on which the plans are based;
Some activities are not covered by nuclear or radiological regulations but also have emergency action plans if there is a radiation risk. Given the special nature of nuclear and radiation emergencies, the CSN assumes a series of functions in this matter that go beyond its competencies as a nuclear regulatory body.
To carry out these functions with an appropriate degree of effectiveness and efficiency, the CSN has an emergency organization that complements its normal working organization. The emergency organization has an operational structure under a single command, the chair, who manages and takes decisions, and in which its technical and logistics units participate according to an action plan set up specifically for these cases and that is activated depending on the severity of the accident that triggers the emergency.
Nuclear and radiation emergencies can give rise to situations with a serious risk of exposing the public to ionizing radiation. For this reason, Spanish legislation requires the licensees of these installations and the public authorities to have emergency plans to guarantee the protection of the public in the event of an accident. The standards issued in Spain for nuclear radiation emergencies are:
- Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN), for nuclear emergencies in NPPs in operation.
- The Basic Directive on Civil Protection Planning against Radiological Risks, which applies to radiological emergencies originating in facilities and activities that use nuclear and radioactive materials, excluding NPPs.
- The National Plan of Civil Protection against Radiological Risk, approved by Royal Decree No. 1054 of 20 November 2015, which establishes the organization and procedures of the resources of the State, as well as other public and private entities, that are necessary to ensure a quick and effective response of the public administration against different radiologic emergency situations that could affect the population.
- Basic Directive on Civil Protection Planning against the Risk of Accidents in Road and Rail Transport of Hazardous Goods, applied to all types of dangerous goods transport, including class 7 materials radioactive materials.
These rules and regulations set the criteria for planning, preparing for and responding to any nuclear or radiological emergency. The response to these emergencies is structured on two levels:
- The on-site response level involves plans focused on reducing or mitigating the consequences of accidents at their origin. Their preparation and application is the responsibility of the licensee of the facility in which the accident occurred and is supervised by the CSN.
- The off-site response level involves the plans aimed at avoiding or at least reducing as far as possible the adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the public and its property. This objective is the joint responsibility of the licensee and the public entities and organizations with competencies and functions regarding the protection of the public against nuclear and radiological risks.
For further information: https://www. csn. es/en/respuesta-a-emergencias In Spain, the regulatory function in nuclear matters is undertaken by two authorities: the Government, through the Ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO), and the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). The Government is in charge of energy policy and of issuing binding regulatory standards. According to this decree, the main tasks and duties of MITECO regarding nuclear energy include:
- Dictating norms and rules and proposing a radioactive waste management policy;
- Granting licences for nuclear and radioactive installations, transporting radioactive materials and for the trade and commerce of nuclear materials;
- Suspending permits, in some specific cases, and sanctioning legal transgressions;
- Following up on the compliance of international commitments, such as non-proliferation, physical protection or civil liability;
- Managing the administrative registers on nuclear items.
The CSN is the sole organization competent in nuclear safety and radiological protection matters in Spain. The Council is formed of five commissioners (one of whom is the President), designated by the Government through a proposal made by MITECO. They must be accepted by a 3/5 majority of Parliament. The CSN is currently regulated in Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980 , on the creation of the Nuclear Safety Council.
Specifically, MITECO is the Department of the General State Administration responsible for nuclear energy, as established in Royal Decree No. 903 of 13 October 2017 (12) , which develops the basic organic structure of MITECO.
At present, the technical workforce of the Council consists of around 460 people. It has two permanent resident inspectors on every NPP site (three inspectors when there are two reactors on the same site). The main tasks of the Council are:
- To issue the required safety reports, prior to authorization by MITECO;
- To carry out all inspections with the capability to suspend activity in case of risk;
- To propose to the Government regulations concerning nuclear safety and radiological protection;
- To propose to MITECO sanctions in matters of nuclear safety and radiation protection;
- To grant licences for operators of nuclear and radioactive installations;
- To inform the public about subjects of its competence;
- To report every year to Parliament about its activities.
Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 on nuclear energy regulates the nuclear installation licensing procedure in Spain. The provisions of this law have been developed by Royal Decree No. 1836 of 3 December 1999 , approving the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities on the procedure for licensing nuclear and radioactive installations. Licensing nuclear installations requires the following authorizations, granted successively:
- Preliminary or site licence, which constitutes an official recognition of the proposed objective and of the suitability of the selected site;
- Construction licence, which allows construction of the installation to begin;
- Operation licence, which allows the licensee to load nuclear fuel into the plant and to operate the installation in accordance with the conditions set out in the licence.
Plant dismantling and plant modification also require prior authorization. Figure 2 shows the nuclear installation licensing procedure. These authorizations are granted by MITECO, under a previous and mandatory report referring to nuclear safety and radiological protection issued by the CSN. This report is binding if negative in its findings or denying authorization, or as regards the conditions established when positive.
To obtain these authorizations, the documents determined in the current regulations must be submitted to the licensing authorities and the suitable tests, analyses and validations must be performed. Nuclear installations require authorizations granted by other administrative bodies, belonging to local administrations, according to the rules of these bodies, although these cannot be denied or conditioned for safety related reasons.
Before granting the preliminary or the dismantling licence, a 30 day period is established for public hearings. During this period, anyone can present allegations. This public information process is developed jointly with the information process required for an environmental impact assessment, which must be approved by MITECO, through the Secretariat of State for the Environment. FIG. Licensing process of nuclear facilities. In Spain, the nuclear sector is governed by a large number of laws, royal decrees and ministerial orders. On a more detailed level, the CSN approves instructions, which are binding technical standards, as well as other non-binding documents. Main laws on nuclear power Establishing responsibilities for different areas
- Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 on nuclear energy (the Nuclear Energy Act). It defines the basic aspects of the nuclear sector, such as identification of administrative authorities and organizations, system of authorizations for nuclear and radioactive facilities and for the possession and use of radioactive materials, measures for safety and protection against ionizing radiation, nuclear third party liability for nuclear damages or a sanctions regime.
- The licences required for physical protection of nuclear installations are regulated by Royal Decree No;
- 1308 of 26 September 2011;
- These licences require reports from the CSN and the Ministry of Home Affairs;
The law was amended on several occasions.
Establishing a regulatory body
- Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980 , creating the Nuclear Safety Council. It regulates the actuation of the CSN, along with its statute, approved by Royal Decree No. 1440 of 5 November 2010. Several laws have amended some of the initial provisions: Law No. 14 of 4 May 1999, governing public tariffs and prices for its services, and Law No.
- The sixth additional provision of Law No. 54 of 27 November 1997 , on the electric sector, regulates the fund for the financing of radioactive waste and spent fuel management activities, including the dismantling and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. The fund is known as the Fund for the Financing of Activities Included in the General Radioactive Waste Plan.
33 of 7 November 2007, which gathered all the amendments from 1980, adapted Law No. 15 of 1980 to the increasing social sensibility related to the environment, and reinforced both the transparency and efficiency of the CSN.
Law No. 54 of 1997 was repealed by Law No. 24 of 26 December 2013 , on the electric sector, except for some particular provisions, such as the mentioned sixth additional provision, which was amended by Law No. 11 of 2009 and Law No. 2 of 2011.
Civil nuclear liability
- Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964 , on nuclear energy, currently regulates civil nuclear liability for nuclear damage. The regulation is set up in accordance with the principles on international conventions in this field, in which Spain is the contracting party (Paris and Brussels Supplementary Conventions).
Implementing IAEA safeguards
- The Spanish regime in relation to safeguards and non-proliferation is governed by the Euratom Regulation No. 302 of 2005. The Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement, signed jointly by Spain, Euratom and the IAEA, is adapted by means of Royal Decree No. 1206 of 19 September 2003, for the application of the commitments undertaken by the Spanish State in the Additional Protocol to the Safeguards Agreement deriving from the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.
Rules for environmental protection
- Law No. 21 of 9 December 2013, on environmental assessment, is the main current legislation regarding environmental protection. In addition, the public access to environmental information is regulated by Law No. 27 of 18 July 2006, regulating the rights of access to information, public participation and access to justice in the area of the environment.
Import and export controls of nuclear material and items
- The commercial regime for imports and exports is determined by EU regulations and specific national legislation, such as Law No. 53 of 28 December 2007, on the control of overseas trading of defence and dual-use materials. The law was developed by Royal Decree No. 2061 of 2008.
Mining and milling
- The Mines Act (Law No. 22 of 21 July 1973) regulates the general mining regime. Law No. 54 of 1980 amended Law No. 22 of 1973, introducing a new section (13) , Section D, which includes coal, radioactive minerals, geothermal resources and bituminous rocks. Law No. 25 of 29 April 1964, on nuclear energy, also applies to radioactive minerals.
- Law No. 15 of 27 December 2012, on fiscal measures for energy sustainability, introduced two new national taxes: a tax on the production of spent fuel and radioactive waste derived from the generation of nuclear energy, and a tax on spent fuel and radioactive waste storage in centralized installations.
In 2004, these conventions were modified. In order to adapt these amendments to Spanish legislation, Law No. 12 of 27 May 2011, on civil liability for nuclear damage or damage caused by radioactive materials, will regulate civil nuclear liability when it enters into force, subject to the entry into force of the 2004 protocols that amend both conventions.
Law No. 16 of 29 October 2013, amended Law No. 15 of 2012, establishing specific measures in relation to environmental taxation and adopting other tax and financial measures.
Main regulations on nuclear power Regulation for establishing an authorization system, responsibilities of the operator, inspection and enforcement, site selection and approval
- Royal Decree No. 1836 of 3 December 1999 , approving the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, develops Law No. 25 of 29 of April 1964, on nuclear energy, in the aspects related to the system of authorizations, the personnel certification, the responsibilities of the operators, and inspection and control activities.
Radiation protection, including protection of the public, employees and the environment
- Royal Decree No. 783 of 6 July 2001, formulates the Regulation of Sanitary Protection against Ionized Radiation. It was amended by Royal Decree No. 1439 of 5 November 2010, in order to modify some provisions related to natural sources of ionizing radiation. Royal Decree No.
- Royal Decree No. 1132 of 14 September 1990, establishes fundamental measures for the radiological protection of persons submitted to medical examinations and treatments.
- Royal Decree No. 413 of 21 March 1997, on the operational protection of off-site workers exposed to ionizing radiation due to their intervention in the controlled zone.
- Royal Decree No. 815 of 13 July 2001, on the justification of the use of ionizing radiation for the radiological protection of people subjected to medical exposure.
- Royal Decree No. 1085 of 3 July 2009, approving the regulation on the installation and the use of medical diagnosis X ray devices.
- Royal Decree No. 229 of 24 February 2006, on the control of high activity encapsulated radioactive sources and orphan sources.
Security of nuclear installations
- Royal Decree No. 1308 of 26 September 2011, on physical protection of installations, radioactive materials and radioactive sources, amended by Royal Decree No. 1086 of 2015, incorporates into Spanish legislation the commitments accepted by Spain on physical protection matters, particularly the Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials (approved in July 2005), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (ratified in January 2007), and the UN Security Council Resolution No.
- 783 of 2001 is currently being reviewed in order to include the provisions established in Directive 2013/59/Euratom of 5 December 2013, laying down basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionizing radiation;
1540 of 2004, on non-proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons.
Nuclear fuel cycle front end activities
- Royal Decree No. 1464 of 17 September 1999, regulates the activities of the nuclear fuel cycle front end.
Radioactive waste and spent fuel management, including storage and disposal; decommissioning, including funding and institutional control
- Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014, on the responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, regulates the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste derived from civil activities, from its generation to its disposal, as well as some aspects related to the funding of such activities, complying with the community framework.
- Royal Decree No. 243 of 27 February 2009, regulates the monitoring and control of movements of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel across member states, or with origins or destination outside the EU.
- The planning and preparation for nuclear emergencies is regulated by the Basic Nuclear Emergency Plan (PLABEN), approved by Royal Decree No. 1546 of 2004.
- Royal Decree No. 1057 of 20 November 2015, approves the National Plan on Civil Protection against Radiologic Risks.
Transport of radioactive material
- Transport of radioactive materials is regulated in a great number of provisions, including the Law on Nuclear Energy, and the Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities. Specific standards applicable to the transport of hazardous goods are:
- Road transports: Royal Decree No. 97 of 5 May 2014, regulating road transport operations with hazardous goods in the Spanish territory. It includes all the provisions of the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).
- Rail transports: Royal Decree No. 412 of 20 April 2001, regulating some aspects relating to the transport of hazardous good by rail, incorporates the provisions of the Regulation concerning the International Carriage of Goods by Rail (RID).
- Air transports: Royal Decree No. 552 of 27 June 2014, setting up the Regulation of the Air and establishing common operative provisions for the services and provisions of aerial navigation.
- Maritime transports: The International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) published by the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and the National Admission, Handling and Storage Regulation for hazardous goods at ports, approved by Royal Decree No. 145 of 20 January 1989.
All technical provisions for the transport of radioactive material contained in the aforementioned regulations are founded on IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSR-6 (Rev. 1), Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. Law No. 54 of 27 November 1997, on the electric sector, https://www. boe. es/buscar/doc. php?id=BOE-A-1997-25340 Law No. 34 of 7 October 1998, on the hydrocarbon sector, https://www.
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europa. eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/es_neeap_2017_en. pdf Renewable Energy Plan 20112020, http://www. idae. es/tecnologias/energias-renovables/plan-de-energias-renovables-2011-2020 Libro de la Energa en Espaa 20002016, http://www. minetad. gob. es/energia/balances/Balances/Paginas/Balances.
aspx World Energy Resources, 2016 (World Energy Council), https://www. worldenergy. org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/World-Energy-Resources-Full-report-2016. 10. 03. pdf Uranium 2016: Resources, Production and Demand, IAEANEA, https://www.
oecd-nea. org/ndd/pubs/2016/7301-uranium-2016. pdf Plan for the Development of the Electric Power Transmission Network 20152020, http://www. minetad. gob. es/energia/planificacion/Planificacionelectricidadygas/desarrollo2015-2020/Documents/Planificacin%202015_2020%20%202016_11_28%20VPublicacin.
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php?id=BOE-A-1964-7544 Law No. 15 of 22 April 1980, creating the Nuclear Safety Council, https://www. boe. es/buscar/doc. php?id=BOE-A-1980-8650 IAEA, Power Reactor Information System PRIS, https://www. iaea. org/PRIS/CountryStatistics/CountryDetails. aspx?current=ES Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN, former UNESA), http://www.
foronuclear. org Royal Decree No. 1836 of 1999, Regulation on Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities, https://www. boe. es/buscar/act. php?id=BOE-A-1999-24924 IAEA, Power Reactor Information System PRIS-RDS2, Nuclear Power Reactors in the World, https://www-pub.
iaea. org/MTCD/Publications/PDF/RDS_2-37_web. pdf Royal Decree No. 102 of 21 February 2014, on the safe and responsible management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, https://www. boe. es/buscar/act. php?id=BOE-A-2014-2489 Sixth General Radioactive Waste Plan, http://www.
minetad. gob. es/energia/nuclear/Residuos/Documents/SextoPGRR. pdf http://www. enresa. es/documentos/ing_6pgrr_indexed. pdf (in English) Spanish Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for 20132020, http://www.
idi. mineco. gob. es/stfls/MICINN/Investigacion/FICHEROS/Estrategia_espanola_ciencia_tecnologia_Innovacion. pdf National Plan for Scientific and Technical Research and Innovation for 20172020, http://www. idi. mineco. gob. es/stfls/MICINN/Prensa/FICHEROS/2018/PlanEstatalIDI.
pdf Seventh R&D Plan of Enresa, http://www. enresa. es/documentos/plann_id_2014. pdf R&D Plan of the CSN, 20162020, https://www. csn. es/en/i-d/plan-i-d Euratom Programme, https://ec. europa. eu/programmes/horizon2020/en/h2020-section/euratom EUROfusion, https://www.
euro-fusion. org/ SET-Plan, https://ec. europa. eu/energy/en/topics/technology-and-innovation/strategic-energy-technology-plan SNETP, http://www. snetp. eu/ ESNII, http://www. snetp. eu/esnii/ In 1985, Spain adhered to the treaties that constitute the European Communities and on 1 January 1986 Spain became a European Communities Member State.
|Area||Treaty||Document||Signature||Spanish Signature||Effect Date||Effect Date for Spain|
|Euratom||Euratom||25. 03. 1957||01. 01. 1958||01. 01. 1986|
|Safeguards||NPT (Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty)||INFCIRC/140||01. 07. 1968||05. 03. 1970||05. 11. 1987|
|Agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and the Agency on implementation of Article III (1) and (4) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons||INFCIRC/193||05. 04. 1973||21. 02. 1977||05. 04. 1989|
|Protocol additional to the Agreement between the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards||GOV/1998/30||22. 09. 1998||22. 09. 1998||30. 04. 2004||30. 04. 2004|
|Physical protection||Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||INFCIRC/274/Rev. 1||03. 03. 1980||07. 04. 1986||08. 02. 1987||06. 10. 1991|
|Amendment to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material||08. 07. 2005||09. 11. 2007||08. 05. 2016||08. 05. 2016|
|Civil liability||Paris Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage 1960, 1964, 1982 (OECD)||29. 07. 1960 28. 01. 1964 16. 11. 1982||29. 07. 1960 28. 01. 1964 16. 11. 1982||01. 04. 1968 07. 10. 1988||07. 10. 1988|
|Protocol to Amend the Paris Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (2004) (OECD)||12. 02. 2004||12. 02. 2004||Not yet||Not yet|
|Brussels Supplementary Convention to Paris Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage (OECD)||31. 01. 1963 28. 01. 1964 16. 11. 1982||31. 01. 1963 28. 01. 1964 16. 11. 1982||Dec-74 01. 08. 1991||01. 08. 1991|
|Protocol to Amend the Brussels Supplementary Convention (2004) (OECD)||12. 02. 2004||12. 02. 2004||Not yet||Not yet|
|Nuclear safety||Convention on Nuclear Safety||INFCIRC/449||20. 09. 1994||15. 10. 1994||24. 10. 1996||24. 10. 1996|
|Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management||INFCIRC/546||05. 09. 1997||30. 06. 1998||18. 06. 2001||18. 06. 2001|
|Nuclear tests||CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization)||10. 09. 1996||24. 09. 1996||No yet, waiting for the signature of some required states, such as India, Pakistan or USA||No yet, waiting for the signature of some required states, such as India, Pakistan or USA|
|Partial test ban (Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and under Water)||05. 08. 1963||13. 08. 1963||10. 10. 1963||17. 08. 1964|
|Nuclear accidents||Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident||INFCIRC/335||26. 09. 1986||26. 09. 1986||27. 10. 1986||14. 10. 1989|
|Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency||INFCIRC/336||26. 09. 1986||26. 09. 1986||26. 02. 1987||14. 10. 1989|
|IAEA||Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the International Atomic Energy Agency||INFCIRC/9 Rev. 2||01. 07. 1959||Approved by Board of Governors||29. 07. 1960||21. 05. 1984|
|Revised Supplementary Agreement Concerning the Provision of Technical Assistance by the IAEA||RSA||Not applicable||10. 06. 1980||Not applicable||10. 06. 1980|
|Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project||INFCIRC/703||21. 11. 2006||EURATOM||24. 10. 2007||24. 10. 2007|
|Nuclear terrorism||International Convention for the Suppression of International Terrorism||13. 04. 2005||14. 09. 2005||07. 07. 2007||07. 07. 2007|
|Others||Antarctic Treaty||01. 12. 1959||23. 06. 1961||31. 03. 1982|
|Sea-bed treaty||11. 02. 1971||18. 05. 1972||15. 07. 1987|
|Outer Space TreatyTreaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space||27. 01. 1967||10. 10. 1967||27. 11. 1968|
|Groups||Zangger Committee||INFCIRC/209||24. 05. 1905||01. 05. 1993||Spain joined the Zangger Committee in 1993|
|Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)||INFCIRC/254 I and II||27. 05. 1905||10. 06. 1905||Spain joined NSG in 1988|
|NATIONAL NUCLEAR ENERGY AUTHORITY||Ministerio para la Transicin Ecolgica Paseo de la Castellana, 160 E-28046 Madrid||Tel. : +34 902 44 60 06 Fax: +34 91 457 80 66 http://www. minetad. gob. es|
|Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) Justo Dorado Dellmans, 11 E-28040 Madrid||Tel. : +34 91 346 01 00 Fax: +34 91 346 05 88 http://www. csn. es|
|MAIN POWER UTILITIES||Trillo||Tel. : +34 949 81 79 00 http://www. cnat. es|
|Vandells II||Tel. : +34 977 81 87 00 http://www. anav. es|
|Almaraz||Tel. : +34 927 54 50 90 http://www. cnat. es|
|Asc||Tel. : +34 977 41 50 00 http://www. anav. es|
|Santa Mara de Garoa||Tel. : +34 947 34 94 00 http://www. nuclenor. org|
|Cofrentes||Tel. : +34 96 189 43 00 http://www. cncofrentes. es/|
|OTHER NUCLEAR ORGANIZATIONS||CIEMAT: Research and development centre Avenida Complutense, 22 E-28040 Madrid||Tel. : +34 91 346 60 00 Fax: +34 91 346 60 05 http://www. ciemat. es|
|CEN: Comit de Energa Nuclear. Foro de la Industria Nuclear Espaola Boix y Morer, 6 – 3 28003 Madrid||Tel. : +34 91 553 63 03 Fax: +34 91 535 08 82 http://www. foronuclear. org|
|TECNATOM S. : Service inspection and maintenance Avenida Montes de Oca, 1 28703 San Sebastin de los Reyes (MADRID)||Tel. : +34 91 659 86 00 Fax: +34 91 659 86 77 http://www. tecnatom. es|
|EMPRESARIOS AGRUPADOS A. Architectural engineering Magallanes, 3. 28015 Madrid||Tel. : +34 91 309 80 00 Fax: +34 91 591 26 55 http://www. empresariosagrupados. es|
|ENRESA S. , S. , M. Back end of the fuel cycle Emilio Vargas, 7 28043 Madrid||Tel. : +34 91 566 81 00 Fax: +34 91 566 81 69 http://www. enresa. es|
|ENUSA Industrias Avanzadas S. , S. Front end of the fuel cycle Santiago Rusiol, 12 28040 Madrid||Tel. : +34 91 347 42 00 Fax: +34 91 347 42 15 http://www. enusa. es|
|Equipos Nucleares S. (ENSA) Avda. Juan Carlos, I No. 39600 Maliao (Cantabria)||Tel. : +34 942 20 01 01 Fax: +34 942 20 01 48 http://www. ensa. es|
|The EURATOM-CIEMAT Association for fusion (Spain)||http://www. fusion. ciemat. es|
|CEIDEN Technology platform on fission nuclear energy||http://www. ceiden. com|
|Iberdrola S.||http://www. iberdrola. es|
|Endesa S.||http://www. endesa. es|
|Gas Natural SDG, S.||http://www. gasnatural. com|
|EDP Espaa S.||https://espana. edp. com/|
|Red Elctrica de Espaa S.||http://www. ree. es|
|Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE)||http://www. sne. es|
|IDOM Consulting, Engineering, Architecture SAU Avenida Zarandoa, 23 48015 Bilbao, Spain||Tel: +34 94 479 76 00 Fax: +34 94 476 18 04 e-mail: [email protected] com www. idom. com|
Name of report coordinator: Irene Dovale Hernndez Institution: Ministry for the Ecological Transition (MITECO) Contact details: MITECO Directorate-General for Energy Policy and Mines Deputy Directorate-General for Nuclear Energy Paseo de la Castellana, 160 28071 Madrid (Spain) [email protected] es.
Does Spain have natural gas?
Spain’s natural gas supply has a very high level of security, even in a crisis situation. The country’s multiple supply routes, six large LNG terminals and an extensive gas network, guarantee supply in almost any situation. Minimum stocks of gas are at 20 days of consumption, which must be held by the shippers.
What is nonrenewable energy?
Non-renewable energy comes from sources that will run out or will not be replenished in our lifetimes —or even in many, many lifetimes. Most non-renewable energy sources are fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, and natural gas.
Which country has the most renewable energy?
Who is leading the world ranking of renewable energy? – The production and use of renewable energy are rising, and almost 30% of the electricity consumed on the planet comes from renewable energies. Norway is the largest clean energy producer, as 98. 4% of its energy production comes from renewable sources.
Where does Spain get their oil from?
Spain typically imports crude oil from all regions except Asia. Most of their crude oil in 2016 came from Mexico, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Iraq, and Angola. Liquid fuels accounted for about 46% of Spain’s total primary energy consumption in 2016, although this share has declined since the 1990s.
Are solar panels illegal in Spain?
In a country as sunny as Spain, it seems like a no-brainer to install solar panels in your home and take advantage of all that affordable (and easily accessible) energy. Yet up until 2019, Spain was known to experts in photovoltaic energy as the country that ‘taxes the sun’. This is because in 2013, legislation was introduced that made it compulsory for any individual or company to hook their solar panels up to the national grid to be metered and taxed.
If they didn’t do this, they would face fines that could be as much as several millions of euros. This is a policy that was unmatched elsewhere in the world and it attracted global scorn. Forbes magazine wrote that: “Spain is now attempting to scale back the use of solar panels – the use of which they have encouraged and subsidized over the last decade – by imposing a tax on those who use the panels”.
Thankfully, this policy was overturned in 2019, and alternative measures were introduced to ensure that renewable energy became an attractive proposition in Spain once more. With that in mind, here is everything you need to know about installing solar panels in Spain, in a post-2019 world: Understanding the Costs Involved A 2019 study by the Spanish Observatory of Photovoltaic Self-Consumption found that solar panel usage in homes in Spain will grow 30 times by 2022, because they are an increasingly attractive and affordable way to power your home.
The cost of installing solar panels on your home has fallen considerably, with prices differing depending on the types of panel you choose and ranging in price from between €260 to €441 per solar panel.
Here is a quick breakdown of some of the most popular panels on the Spanish market: Sunpower SPR-X21-345: €441,65 Panasonic VBHN325SJ47: €275,88 Aleo X59: €350,9 QCells Q. Peak-G4. 1 305: €260,15 REC 280TP: €379 Calculating the exact price of putting solar panels on your home is difficult, as it will depend on the size of your roof and the number of panels you need, amongst other factors.
You must also take into account any installation costs, which range from between € 600 to € 1,200 for an average-sized home, and then wiring and meter installation, which you can expect to pay €1,200 for.
Do I Still Have to Connect my Panels to the National Grid? Since 2019, the obligation to connect your own solar panels to the national electricity grid has been removed. In the vast majority of cases, most homeowners do choose to connect their panels, if you would rather not for some reason then you no longer have to.
- Being ‘off grid’ may not be appealing because if you’re not connected to the grid, you’ll have to be self-energy reliant at all times and will probably need your own energy storage systems, for example, batteries;
But being hooked up to the grid does have some excellent benefits: if you’re linked up and your solar panels produce more electricity than you need for your own use then you can get your money back for that excess electricity. Don’t produce all the other electricity you need? You can still pull power from the grid, and will never be at risk of not having the power you need.
- Understanding the Spanish Government’s Attitudes to Solar Panels As we mentioned above, a new Royal Decree can into force in 2019 that changed the way Spanish homeowners look at the use of solar panels;
The degree states that: “Spain’s energy system has begun a process of transition towards a new paradigm characterised by decarbonisation, decentralisation of energy generation, electrification of the economy, more active consumer participation and more sustainable use of resources”.
- The Spanish government is keen for its citizens to ‘go green’ and choosing to promote the installation of solar panels is just one of the ways of doing this;
- As well as promoting solar panels, the Spanish government is also providing subsidies to encourage homeowners to consider their installation;
Spain’s Tax Agency may deduct 20 percent of the amount spent on installing solar panels at your first or second home in Spain, as long as the panels are meant for home consumption and are not being used as an economic activity. Different regions in Spain are also introducing their own legislation to encourage renewable energy development, so it could well be that you are entitled to additional subsidies depending on where you live: it’s well worth checking out your local community website to see if any of these benefits apply to you.
How much can I save on electricity bills if I install solar panels? It’s important to note that you won’t start saving money on your solar panels the day they are installed: the average time it takes homeowners with solar panels to recoup their investment is 5 to 8 years right now: as the technology continues to evolve this timespan will get shorter.
How much, exactly, you will save will depend on the size of your house, how much energy you use , and how many panels you have installed. According to a 2016 study by energy consumption analysts Mirubee, the installation of solar panels on the roof of a house in Spain can save those homeowners an average of around 24 percent off their monthly electricity bills.
Who supplies natural gas to Spain?
The US is Spain’s biggest gas supplier, with a 30% share. The European Union, facing its biggest energy crisis in decades, is trying to boost its gas-storage levels and seek alternate supplies amid tensions with Moscow over its war in Ukraine.
How much of Spain’s energy is imported?
The dependency rate on energy imports in Spain in 2019 was approximately 69. 9 percent which was the lowest dependency rate in the time period of 2009 to 2020 and a decrease form the previous year which had a dependency rate of approximately 75 percent.
Which country has the most renewable energy?
Who is leading the world ranking of renewable energy? – The production and use of renewable energy are rising, and almost 30% of the electricity consumed on the planet comes from renewable energies. Norway is the largest clean energy producer, as 98. 4% of its energy production comes from renewable sources.
How much of Portugal energy is renewable?
Fatih Birol IEA Executive Director – Since the International Energy Agency’s (IEA) last energy policy review in 2016, Portugal has recovered from the extended economic downturn it experienced following the 2008 financial crisis. In 2019, gross domestic product (GDP) reached USD 340 billion, higher than the 2008 pre-crisis level of USD 325 billion.
The unemployment rate fell from a high of 16. 2% in 2013 to 6. 5% in 2019 (compared to 7. 6% in 2008). The economic recovery accelerated ongoing structural changes away from energy-intensive activities and Portugal is showing signs of decoupling economic growth from energy demand, with total final consumption per GDP dropping by 8% between 2014 and 2019.
Portugal was notably impacted by the Covid-19 pandemic, with GDP dropping by 8. 4% in 2020, the largest annual decline since 1936. Both Portugal and the European Union (EU) have taken major steps to address the impacts of the pandemic and support a return to economic growth.
- In March 2020, Portugal announced a EUR 9;
- 2 billion stimulus package consisting mainly of broad fiscal measures, state-backed credit guarantees and increased social payments;
- Portugal also took actions specific to the energy sector, including fast-tracking the permitting and grid connection of 220 solar photovoltaic (PV) projects, providing funding to public transportation operators, and introducing a financial support programme for building energy efficiency measures, which was highly successful and will be continued in the coming years;
The EU has approved EUR 750 billion in funding to support recovery and resilience plans being developed by each EU member state. Portugal’s plan was submitted to the EU in April 2021, requesting EUR 13. 9 billion in grants and EUR 2. 7 billion in loans. Portugal’s plan dedicates notable funding to the energy sector, with funding for sustainable mobility, energy efficiency, renewables, decarbonisation and bio-economy.
The plan includes EUR 610 million for energy efficiency and renewable energy in buildings and EUR 185 million to support 264 megawatts (MW) of renewable gas production (hydrogen and biomethane). The EU has estimated that Portugal’s recovery and resilience plan, along with other measures taken by the government, should result in strong recovery from the pandemic, with GDP increasing by 4.
1% in 2021 and 4. 3% in 2022. Portugal remains reliant on imported fossil fuels, which accounted for 76% of primary energy supply in 2019 (43% oil, 24% natural gas and 6% coal). All oil, natural gas and coal are imported. As a result of increased economic activity and the high share of fossil fuels in its energy supply, Portugal’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions increased by 13% from 2014 to 2018, with notable annual variations driven by the seasonal availability of generation from Portugal’s large fleet of hydropower dams.
Since 2005, land use, land‑use change and forestry has, on average, reduced Portugal’s annual GHG emissions. However, in 2017, extreme wildfires caused notable GHG emissions, and in fact, Portugal is facing an increasing risk of wildfires.
Portugal has also achieved a high level of electrification. In 2019, electricity covered 25% of total final energy demand, 56% of building energy demand and 25% of industry energy demand. Portugal has also achieved high shares of renewable energy, which covered 30.
6% of gross final energy demand in 2019. Thanks mainly to hydropower and wind generation, renewables covered 54% of electricity generation and there is high use of bioenergy in industry and buildings. However, there has been limited growth in renewables in recent years, but Portugal is taking steps to accelerate renewables deployment, especially for solar PV, and is completing a new 1.
2 gigawatt (GW) hydropower project. From 2014 to 2019, the share or renewables in gross final energy demand increased by 3. 8%. Sustained deployment of renewables is needed in all areas to meet Portugal’s 2030 targets. In response to policy and market pressures, the private operators of Portugal’s two coal‑fired power plants announced in 2020 that both plants will permanently close in 2021.
The 1. 3 GW Sines coal-fired power plant closed in January 2021 and the 0. 6 GW Pego coal power plant will close in November 2021. The government indicates that natural gas electricity generation will be maintained until at least 2040.
Energy research, development and demonstration (RD&D) expenditure in the country reached 0. 07% of GDP in 2019 (against 0. 06% in 2016). The share of energy RD&D in total R&D expenditure evolved from 4% to 5% between 2016 and 2019. Portugal was among the first countries in the world to set 2050 carbon neutrality goals.
Portugal’s energy and climate policies push for carbon neutrality primarily through broad electrification of energy demand and a rapid expansion of renewable electricity generation, along with increased energy efficiency.
There is a strong focus on reducing energy import dependency and maintaining affordable access to energy. These policy goals are supported through clear targets, detailed national strategies and a wide range of regulations, economy-wide programmes and sector-specific measures.
- The European Union (EU) Emission Trading System (ETS) encourages GHG emissions reductions from Portugal’s energy-intensive industries and electricity generation;
- Portugal’s National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP) sets 2030 targets for a 17% reduction of non-ETS GHG emissions and a 45-55% reduction in total GHG emissions (both compared to 2005 levels), energy efficiency (primary energy demand less than 21;
5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), compared to 22. 1 Mtoe in 2019, and final energy demand less than 14. 9 Mtoe, compared to 17. 1 Mtoe in 2019), renewable energy (47% of gross final energy demand, 80% of electricity generation, 49% of heating and cooling demand, and 20% of transport demand), 15% cross-border electricity interconnection (compared to 10% in 2019), and 65% external energy dependency (compared to 74% in 2019).
- Portugal sees a key role for hydrogen produced from renewable energy in hard-to-decarbonise sectors and for achieving carbon neutrality;
- The National Hydrogen Strategy (EN-H2) sets a goal for hydrogen produced from renewable energy to cover 1;
5-2. 0% of Portugal’s energy demand by 2030, with use in industry, domestic maritime shipping, road transport and for injection into the natural gas network. The EN-H2 indicates that achieving these goals requires deployment of 2. 0-2. 5 GW of electrolysis capacity along with enabling legislation, regulations and standards.
Both the NECP and the EN-H2 call for RD&D. The NECP sets 2030 targets for combined public and private spending on overall RD&D to increase to 3% of GDP and for combined public and private spending on energy RD&D and on climate and water RD&D to both increase to 0.
2% of GDP. In 2019, total public and private spending on energy RD&D was 0. 07% of GDP. Portugal’s energy RD&D measures and programmes support commercial deployment of products and services, pilot projects and industrial clusters focused on new technologies, and business models based on low‑carbon products and services.
The NECP and EN-H2 are intended to put Portugal on a path to achieving the goals set in the Roadmap for Carbon Neutrality 2050 (RNC2050), which calls for GHG emissions reductions of 85-90% by 2050 versus 2005 levels, complete decarbonisation of electricity generation and transport, and carbon sequestration to reach carbon neutrality.
The RNC2050 envisions achieving the 2050 goals through the deployment of renewables to cover 86-88% of final energy demand, electrification (with electricity covering 66-68% of final energy demand) and major demand reductions achieved mainly through energy efficiency measures that aim to reduce primary energy demand to less than 12.
- 5 Mtoe, compared to 22;
- 1 Mtoe in 2019 and final energy demand to less than 11;
- 4 Mtoe, compared to 17;
- 1 Mtoe in 2019;
- The Azores and Madeira autonomous regions set their own energy and climate policies and strategies;
These islands still heavily rely on oil products, even for electricity generation. With the increasing introduction of renewable energy, oil demand is decreasing and some islands have already reached high shares of renewable electricity generation by leveraging a wide range of technologies (geothermal, wind, hydro, solar PV and energy storage).
- The Azores and Madeira are testing different approaches to increase the share of renewables, boost the use of electric vehicles (EVs), and improve the energy efficiency of residential and service sector buildings;
The Azores’ and Madeira’s programmes to support the energy transition appear to be more ambitious than those for mainland Portugal, and these island regions can pioneer living labs to test innovative solutions, like storage, smart grids, electric mobility and integration of very high shares of renewables.
A central aspect of Portugal’s energy and climate policy is the Green Taxation Law, passed in 2014 to better align energy sector taxation with decarbonisation goals. As part of the Green Taxation Law, Portugal established a carbon tax in 2015 that covers fossil fuel demand in all non-ETS sectors.
The carbon tax is charged as an additional amount on top of the energy products tax (ISP), which covers most energy demand including fossil fuels, electricity and heat. The carbon tax rate is based on historic price trends of ETS allowances and conversion factors that assign higher tax rates to fuels with higher emissions and environmental impacts.
Revenue from the carbon tax and ETS allowance auctions are allocated to Portugal’s Environmental Fund, which supports a wide range of government programmes, including some decarbonisation measures. The government has made adjustments to the carbon tax to drive decarbonisation.
In 2018, a progressive elimination of the ISP and carbon tax exemptions for coal used in electricity generation was introduced. As a result of the reduced exemption and market factors, Portugal’s largest coal-fired electricity plant closed in January 2021 and the last coal-fired electricity plant will close in November 2021.
- Since April 2020, natural gas used for electricity generation (excluding co-generation) is subject to a progressive reduction of the ISP and carbon tax exemptions;
- This is intended to favour the deployment of renewable generation, although the NECP indicates that natural gas electricity generation will be maintained until at least 2040;
Portugal has several measures to drive the deployment of renewable electricity generation, including feed-in tariffs and a new system for allocating grid connection capacity that includes solar PV auctions. Since this new system was established in 2019, network capacity reserve titles have been granted to over 1.
95 GW of renewable energy projects (primarily solar PV, along with some wind and battery storage). The government approved 1. 16 GW of new hydropower capacity and major expansions of electricity infrastructure to support the integration of renewables and better interconnection with Spain.
The government is also taking steps to increase the flexibility of the electricity system, including the deployment of smart grids and pilot projects for dynamic tariffs and demand response market participation. In 2020, only 33% of the average household retail electricity price was energy costs, with the remaining 67% coming from tariffs and taxes.
- For industrial users, only 42% of the average retail price was composed of energy costs, with the remaining 58% coming from tariffs and taxes;
- The high level of taxes and tariffs hampers electricity from competing with other fuels and is a barrier to achieving Portugal’s goals for electrification;
The government should continue its efforts to adjust energy taxation to ensure that energy prices drive consumer behaviour and investment decisions that support Portugal’s decarbonisation goals. Strong action is needed to support Portugal’s goals for transport decarbonisation.
In 2019, 94% of transport energy demand was covered by oil, and transport GHG emissions increased by 10% from 2014 to 2019. Portugal has several measures to drive transport decarbonisation. Road vehicle taxation encourages the purchase of lower emission vehicles and there is a strong focus on transitioning to EVs.
The RNC2050 indicates that electricity should cover 36% of passenger vehicle demand by 2030 and 100% by 2050. To drive EV uptake, Portugal introduced monetary incentives for battery electric vehicles (BEVs) in 2015. There is also favourable tax treatment for BEVs and support for EV charging infrastructure.
Portugal is also pushing for transport decarbonisation, with over EUR 10 billion of investments in electrified passenger and freight rail, and electrified public transportation. The government has developed a National Strategy for Bicycling and Active Mobility, which aims to increase bike lanes in Portugal from 2 000 km in 2018 to 10 000 km in 2030.
There are also financial incentives for purchasing electric and regular bicycles (including cargo bikes). The System for Management of Intensive Energy Demand (SGCIE) is Portugal’s main programme to promote energy efficiency in industry. Under SGCIE, energy‑intensive industrial facilities must complete an energy audit every eight years and develop plans to implement energy efficiency measures achieving a 4-6% reduction in energy demand.
- Progress on the implementation of these plans is monitored by the government;
- Industrial facilities regulated by the SGCIE receive exemptions from the carbon tax and the ISP;
- The government is considering a progressive reduction of the carbon tax exemption for facilities regulated by the SGCIE, which would result in higher taxes on fossil fuels;
More aggressive SGCIE efficiency targets and policy clarity on industrial decarbonisation pathways are needed to help industry achieve cost-effective decarbonisation. Portugal has a wide range of measures to support the decarbonisation of buildings, including codes, certifications and financial support mechanisms for renovations.
As of January 2019, all new buildings owned or occupied by a public entity need to satisfy nearly zero-energy buildings (NZEB) requirements. Starting in January 2021, all newly constructed or majorly renovated private buildings with an area greater than 1 000 square metres need to satisfy NZEB requirements.
Under the National Buildings Energy Performance Certification System (SCE), all residential, service sector and public buildings must go through an audit to receive an energy certificate when they are constructed or deeply renovated, each time the building changes ownership or is leased, and under other conditions for service sector or public buildings.
The SCE has improved insulation and heating and cooling in both new buildings and resulted in deep renovations of existing buildings. However, around two-thirds of Portugal’s building stock was constructed before any energy performance requirements were put in place, and around two-thirds of buildings still lack SCE certificates and 75% of certified buildings do not meet requirements for thermal comfort.
Major efforts are needed to accelerate building renovation to reduce building energy demand and emissions and improve thermal comfort. In February 2021, Portugal approved a Long-term Renovation Strategy that aims to rapidly increase the pace of renovations through specific public and private investments to be made in buildings until 2050.
- Portugal faces challenges relating to energy poverty, with relatively high energy prices and a building stock that often lacks adequate insulation;
- In 2018, the EU Energy Poverty Observatory noted that 19;
4% of Portugal’s population reported that they were unable to keep their homes adequately warm (the EU average was 7. 3%) and also noted challenges related to cooling. The government places a strong priority on energy affordability and has established social tariffs for electricity and natural gas that provide discounts on parts of the distribution tariffs to reduce the electricity and gas bills of households that meet certain socio‑economic criteria.
In December 2020, 752 965 households (14% of all households) received the electricity social tariff, while 34 709 households (2. 4% of all households connected to the gas network) received the natural gas social tariff.
In 2020, the electricity social tariff reduced the bills of qualifying households by a total of around EUR 109 million, an average reduction of EUR 114 per household. The gas social tariff led to a total reduction of around EUR 1. 6 million, an average reduction of EUR 45 per household.
The electricity social tariff is financed by the owners of fossil fuel generation assets and large-scale hydropower plants, both in proportion to installed capacity. The gas social tariff is financed by gas network operators and gas suppliers in proportion to the amount of gas delivered or sold in the previous year.
While the need to protect vulnerable households is understood, the IEA notes that the social tariffs unduly add responsibilities and costs for energy suppliers. Portugal is developing a National Long-Term Strategy to Tackle Energy Poverty to improve vulnerable consumer protection instruments and propose measures to reduce energy poverty.
Portugal is also preparing a National Strategy to Combat Poverty that is intended to address all issues that contribute to poverty, including energy poverty. The IEA recommends that the government use the development of these two strategies to examine a full range of options to address energy poverty.
Especially critical are deep renovations that reduce energy demand (and consumer bills) while improving the comfort of residences, and supporting electrification and distributed renewable energy. The recently launched long-term renovation strategy gives priority to renovating the worst performing buildings to address energy poverty.
As a result of the high demand for fossil fuels (primarily oil and natural gas) and the lack of domestic fossil resources, Portugal has a high energy import dependency. In 2019, Portugal’s energy import dependency was 74%, one of the highest levels among IEA member countries.
Portugal has made progress on reducing energy import dependency by increasing the share of renewables in the energy supply, especially for electricity. The NECP sets ambitious targets to reduce energy import dependency below 65% by 2030 and the RNC2050 sets ambitious targets to reduce energy import dependency below 19% by 2050.
- Achieving these goals will require strong and sustained measures to reduce fossil fuel demand, especially in transport, where 94% of energy demand was covered by oil in 2019, as well as in industry, where oil and natural gas together covered 51% of energy demand in 2019;
Portugal’s energy system delivers a high level of security of supply. However, susceptibility to climate impacts is emerging as a significant risk. Portugal’s transmission and distribution infrastructure face a growing threat from extreme weather events and wildfires, both of which are likely to increase in frequency and severity because of climate change.
Climate impacts on rainfall pose a threat to Portugal’s hydropower generation, which is critical for secure grid operations and for meeting goals for decarbonisation, electrification and reducing energy import dependency.
It is recommended that Portugal include potential climate impacts on the electricity system in the Security of Supply Monitoring Report and in the planning for climate adaptation. The government is working internationally to increase electricity interconnections with Spain and the rest of Europe, which will help to increase the security of electricity supply.
- Many of Portugal’s energy sector goals rely on increasing the flexibility of the energy system, especially electricity supply and demand;
- This presents excellent opportunities to leverage hydropower (especially pumped storage), battery storage, smart grids, distributed generation and demand response, but will also increase cybersecurity risks;
The government should ensure that all energy sector planning processes incorporate assessments of cybersecurity risks and take appropriate measures to plan for and reduce risks, and mitigate potential impacts. The government of Portugal should:
- Establish a broad stakeholder alliance to drive rapid implementation of the measures in the Roadmap for Carbon Neutrality, the National Energy and Climate Plan and the National Hydrogen Strategy, and to provide investor certainty on policy direction.
- Accelerate the reform to align energy taxes with decarbonisation goals and ensure that the carbon tax drives emissions reductions in all sectors.
- Enhance electricity retail market competition by removing barriers to entry for new players and facilitate market innovation to incentivise demand response, distributed renewables and increased electrification while ensuring market integrity and security.
- Prioritise deep renovation of public buildings and residences owned or rented by vulnerable consumers in order to reduce energy poverty, increase thermal comfort and support the achievement of decarbonisation goals.
- Develop a clear strategy for rapid electrification and the use of sustainable biofuels and hydrogen in the transport sector. Reduce the use of private cars and promote the use of railway to transport people between major cities and for international freight.
- Continue to work with Spain on increasing electricity interconnection capacity between Portugal and Spain and between the Iberian peninsula and the rest of Europe.
- Develop a dedicated strategy for energy research, development and demonstration that aligns policy design, implementation and funding with the achievement of Portugal’s 2030 energy sector targets and 2050 decarbonisation goals, including support for commercial deployment of new energy technologies, products and services.
What energy is renewable UK?
Breaking records: The UK’s renewable energy in numbers – 2020 was the UK’s highest year on record for renewable generation so far, and we’ve been breaking records for renewables ever since.
- Zero-carbon power in Britain’s electricity mix has grown from less than 20% in 2010 to nearly 50% in 2021. In contrast, power provided from fossil fuels was down to roughly 35% in 2021 compared with over 75% in 2010.
- In 2020 renewables accounted for more than 43. 1% of the UK’s total electricity generated, at 312 terawatt hours (TWh). This outstripped fossil fuels over the course of a year, for the first time in the nation’s history.
- 2020 also saw UK have its longest run of coal-free power, with a total of 68 days between 10 April and 16 June. This is the longest coal-free period since the industrial revolution, which began in the mid-1700s!
- Zero-carbon generation overtook fossil fuel consumption in 11 months of the year in 2021.
- 2021 was the second highest year for renewable generation on record, after 2020.
- On 5 April 2021, the UK achieved its lowest ever carbon intensity at 39 grams of CO 2 per kWh, due to reduced use of fossil fuels for electricity generation. This was made possible by a 60% increase in the rate of renewable capacity installed in 2021 (compared to 2020).
- 25 May 2022 holds the record for the maximum amount of wind power generation, at 19. 9 GW.
What are the Covid restrictions in Spain?
COVID-19: Passengers (except for children under the age of 12 and those in international transit) arriving from countries that do NOT belong to the European Union or are NOT considered Schengen associated countries, must show an EU DIGITAL COVID CERTIFICATE OR EU EQUIVALENT or the SpTH QR, in order to pass the health.